Acemannan, an extracted product from Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation.
Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 Jan 20. Epub 2010 Jan 20. PMID: 20088703
Chulalongkorn University, Dental Biomaterials Science Program, Gradulate School, Faculty of Dentistry, Bangkok, Thailand; firstname.lastname@example.org.
This study investigated the effect of acemannan (Aloe veragel polysaccharide) on dentin formation. Primary human dental pulp cells (PDPC) were treated with acemannan. New DNA synthesis, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity, dentin sialoprotein (DSP) expression and mineralization were determined by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, ELISA, biochemical assay, western blotting and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. After that, the upper first molars of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were intentionally exposed, and capped with either acemannan or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. At day 28, the teeth were histopathologically examined and evaluated for the degree of inflammation, dentin bridge formation and pulp tissue organization. The results revealed that acemannan significantly increased pulp cell proliferation, BMP-2, ALPase activity, DSP expression, and mineralization, compared to the untreated group. The acemannan-treated group also exhibited a complete homogeneous calcified dentin bridge and good pulp tissue organization; while neither was detected in the Ca(OH)2-treated and sham groups. In the acemannan-treated group, either mild or no inflammation was found, while the other groups had various degrees of inflammation. The data suggest that acemannan promotes dentin formation by stimulating PDPC proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix formation, and mineralization. Acemannan also has pulpal biocompatibility and promotes soft tissue organization.