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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Methanol extract of the aerial parts of barley (Hordeum vulgare) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo.

Abstract Source:

Pharm Biol. 2013 Aug ;51(8):1066-76. Epub 2013 Jun 7. PMID: 23746221

Abstract Author(s):

Ki-Choon Choi, Jung-Min Hwang, Sung-Jun Bang, Young-Ok Son, Beom-Tae Kim, Dong-Hern Kim, Seung-Ah Lee, Minseon Chae, Da Hye Kim, Jeong-Chae Lee

Article Affiliation:

Ki-Choon Choi

Abstract:

CONTEXT: Recently, there has been renewed interest in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Poaceae) as a functional food and for its medicinal properties.

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the anti-inflammatory potential of the active fractions of barley and the mechanisms involved.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The macrophages were exposed to 100 μg/mL of each of the barley extracts in the presence of 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and after 24 or 48 h of incubation, cells or culture supernatants were analyzed by various assays. The anti-inflammatory potential of barley fractions was also investigated using the LPS-injected septicmouse model. The active constituents in the fractions were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

RESULTS: The active fractions, named F₄, F₇, F₉ and F₁₂, inhibited almost completely the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthase. Pre-treatment with these fractions at 100 μg/mL diminished the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels to 19.8, 3.5, 1.2 and 1.7 ng/mL, respectively, compared toLPS treatment alone (41.5 ng/mL). These fractions at 100 μg/mL also suppressed apparently the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB in LPS-stimulated cells. Mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (30 mg/kg BW) showed 20% survival at 48 h after injection, whereas oral administration of the fractions improved the survival rates to 80%. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the derivatives of benzoic and cinnamic acids and fatty acids in the fractions.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The aerial parts of barley are useful as functional food to prevent acute inflammatory responses.

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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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