Analysis of Bisphenol A, Nonylphenol and Natural Estrogens in Vegetables and Fruits Using Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Dec 6. Epub 2012 Dec 6. PMID: 23215552
Bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and steroidal estrogens in vegetables and fruits were analyzed using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Isotope dilution standards were spiked before the extraction to account for extraction inefficiency and loss of analytes during sample workup. Recoveries were greater than 90% for all of the compounds in each matrix. The limit of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.03 to 0.3µg kg-1 while the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 µg kg-1. All analytes can be monitored in a single GC-MS/MS run with a run time of 20 min. Occurrence of these endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vegetables and fruits from local markets was observed using the established analytical method. BPA was detected in all vegetable and fruit samples, ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 9.0±4.9 µg kg-1, indicating significant exposure potential for humans. NP was detected in pumpkin, sweet potato, citrus, and apple samples. The concentration of 4-n-NP ranged from 5.3±2.4 to 18.9±8.0µg kg-1 while that of the 4-NP ranged from 5.1±2.6 to 12.2±3.6 µg kg-1. Concentrations of 17-β-estradiol in vegetables and fruits ranged from 1.3±0.4 to 2.2±1.0 µg kg-1 except those in tomato and strawberry. The estimated daily intake of 17-β-estradiol was beyond the recommended acceptabledaily intake (ADI) for children as recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).