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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

Abstract Title:

Effects of hyperthermia and boric acid on skeletal development in rat embryos.

Abstract Source:

Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2005 Jun;74(3):268-76. PMID: 15954087

Abstract Author(s):

Wafa A Harrouk, Kellylynn E Wheeler, Gary L Kimmel, Karen A Hogan, Carole A Kimmel

Article Affiliation:

Division of Reproductive and Urologic Drug Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA. harroukw@cder.fda.gov

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The individual effects of boric acid (BA) and hyperthermia on the development of the axial skeleton have been reported previously. Both cause an increased incidence of axial skeletal defects including a decrease in the total number of ribs and vertebrae. Because of the similarity in the effects of the two agents, we examined their interaction when given in combination to pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 10. METHODS: Dams were treated on GD 10 with BA (0, 250, or 500 mg/kg) and hyperthermia (37, 41, or 42 degrees C) and allowed to deliver their pups. Doses of BA were based on results from a dose-finding study. Litters were evaluated on postnatal days (PND) 1 and 3 for number, gender, and weight of pups. On PND3, pups were examined externally and viscerally, and double-stained for skeletal evaluation. RESULTS: A dose-dependent, statistically significant increase in fetal skeletal defects was seen on PND 3 with BA or hyperthermia alone with even greater effects when given in combination. Defects included rib and vertebral fusions, split vertebral centra in the thoracic and lumbar areas, and a decrease in the total number of ribs and vertebrae. CONCLUSIONS: The increased incidence of skeletal defects resulting from combined exposure to hyperthermia and BA was additive for segmentation defects and synergistic for the reduction in numbers of vertebrae.

Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Boric Acid : CK(44) : AC(23)

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Sayer Ji
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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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