Abstract Title:

Preventive effects of a cocoa-enriched diet on gingival oxidative stress in experimental periodontitis.

Abstract Source:

J Periodontol. 2009 Nov;80(11):1799-808. PMID: 19905949

Abstract Author(s):

Takaaki Tomofuji, Daisuke Ekuni, Koichiro Irie, Tetsuji Azuma, Yasumasa Endo, Naofumi Tamaki, Toshihiro Sanbe, Jun Murakami, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Manabu Morita


BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress affects the progression of periodontitis. Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids with antioxidant properties, which could suppress gingival oxidative stress in periodontal lesions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a cocoa-enriched diet on gingival oxidative stress in a rat-periodontitis model. METHODS: In this 4-week study, rats were divided into three groups (n = 8/group): a control group (fed a regular diet) and two periodontitis groups (fed a regular diet or cocoa-enriched diet [10% of food intake]). Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement around the mandibular first molars. Serum levels for reactive oxygen metabolites were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks. At 4 weeks, the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio were determined to evaluate gingival oxidative damage and antioxidant status, respectively. RESULTS: Rats with experimental periodontitis that were fed a regular diet showed an increase in the level of serum reactive oxygen metabolites in a time-dependent manner. These rats also had an increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine level and decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio in the gingival tissue, inducing alveolar bone loss and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration. Although experimental periodontitis was induced in the rats fed a cocoa-enriched diet, they did not show impairments in serum reactive oxygen metabolite level and gingival levels for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio. Alveolar bone loss and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration after ligature placement were also inhibited by cocoa intake. CONCLUSION: Consuming a cocoa-enriched diet could diminish periodontitis-induced oxidative stress, which, in turn, might suppress the progression of periodontitis.

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