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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

Abstract Title:

Low-fructose diet lowers blood pressure and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Abstract Source:

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011 May 25. Epub 2011 May 25. PMID: 21613382

Abstract Author(s):

Andrzej Brymora, Mariusz Flisinski, Richard J Johnson, Grazyna Goszka, Anna Stefanska, Jacek Manitius

Article Affiliation:

1Department of Nephrology, Hypertension and Internal Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Collegium Medicum of Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Abstract:

Background. Fructose has been strongly linked with hypertension, hyperuricemia and inflammation in experimental models and humans. However, the effect of low-fructose diet on inflammation, hyperuricemia and the progression of renal disease has not yet been evaluated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods. Twenty-eight patients (age 59± 15 years, 17 males/11 females) with Stages 2 and 3 CKD were switched from a regular (basal) (60.0 g/24 h) to a low (12.0 g/24 h) fructose diet for 6 weeks, followed by a resumption of their regular diet for another 6 weeks. Diet was monitored by a dietician. At the baseline, low- and regular-fructose diet ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured and blood sampled for renal function (creatinine), inflammatory markers, fasting glucose and insulin and serum uric acid. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were also obtained for creatinine, uric acid, monocyte chemotatic protein-1, transforminggrowth factor-beta and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. RESULTS: The low-fructose diet tended to improve BP for the whole group (n = 28), while significant reduction of BP was only seen in dippers (n = 20) but not in non-dippers (n = 8). No effects on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) orproteinuria were observed. Serum uric acid was lowered non-significantly with low-fructose diet (7.1 ± 1.3 versus 6.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL, P<0.1), whereas a significant decrease in fasting serum insulin was observed (11.2± 6.1 versus 8.2 ± 2.9 mIU/mL, P<0.05) and the reduction persisted after return to the regular diet. A slight but not significant reduction in urinary uric acid and fractional uric acid excretion was observed while the patients were on the low fructose diet. The low-fructose diet also decreased high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (4.3± 4.9 versus 3.3 ± 4.5 mg/L; P<0.01) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) (250.9± 59.4 versus 227 ± 50.5 ng/mL; P<0.05). The hsCRP returned to baseline with resumption of the regular diet, whereas the reduction in sICAM persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Low-fructose diet in subjects with CKD can reduce inflammation with some potential benefits on BP. This pilot study needs to be confirmed by a larger clinical trial to determine the long-term benefit of a low-fructose diet compared to other diets in subjects with CKD.

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Sayer Ji
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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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