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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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Abstract Title:

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia species) modulate the oxidative stress associated injury of diesel exhaust particles in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

Abstract Source:

Phytomedicine. 2019 Mar 20 ;59:152898. Epub 2019 Mar 20. PMID: 30986715

Abstract Author(s):

Akeem O Lawal, Lester M Davids, Jeanine L Marnewick

Article Affiliation:

Akeem O Lawal

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Previous evidence show foods and beverages rich in polyphenolic compounds to have favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

HYPOTHESIS: The current study assessed the modulation of oxidative stress and associated inflammation induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP - SRM 2975) by pre-treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with aqueous extracts of rooibos [fermented (FR) as well as green form (GR)] and honeybush [fermented form (FH)].

STUDY DESIGN: HUVEC are either exposed to DEP (10 µg/ml) for 4 h or pre-treated with 40 and 60 µg/ml of FR or GH or FR, or 50 µg/ml orientin (OR) for 6 h prior to DEP exposure.

METHODS: In vitro antioxidant capacity of the extracts was assessed and the polyphenol contents were also assessed by HPLC. ROS, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, lipid peroxidation, GSH:GSSG ratios, conjugated diene and protein carbonyl levels were determined as indices of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. RT-qPCR and western blot were used to assess inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant genes expression.

RESULTS: DEP caused a dose and time-dependent increase in ROS production, significant (p < 0.001) increase in protein carbonyl (PC) formation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and conjugated dienes levels (p < 0.01) and a significant reduction in glutathione (GSH) redox status. Pre-incubation with either the herbal extracts or orientin attenuated these effects. The significant increase in IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, VCAM-1 and ATF4 gene expression caused by DEP (10 µg/ml) were also attenuated by the presenceof the FR, GR and FH extracts, and OR . Pre-treatment with the rooibos extracts or flavone orientin enhanced cell viability, reduced LDH leakage, enhanced mRNA expression of NQO1 and Nrf2, but repressed CYP1B1 mRNA induced by DEP. Western blot showed both the herbal tea extracts and orientin to enhance NQO1 and γGSC protein induction by DEP.

CONCLUSION: Taken together, the herbal extracts offer protection against DEP-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

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Sayer Ji
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Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

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