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Abstract Title:

Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases.

Abstract Source:

Biomed Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;60(9):502-7. Epub 2006 Aug 28. PMID: 17045449

Abstract Author(s):

A P Simopoulos

Abstract:

Anthropological and epidemiological studies and studies at the molecular level indicate that human beings evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) of approximately 1 whereas in Western diets the ratio is 15/1 to 16.7/1. A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whereas increased levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (a lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio), exert suppressive effects. Increased dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) leads to oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), platelet aggregation, and interferes with the incorporation of EFA in cell membrane phospholipids. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory effects, suppress interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas omega-6 fatty acids do not. Because inflammation is at the base of many chronic diseases, dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids plays an important role in the manifestation of disease, particularly in persons with genetic variation, as for example in individuals with genetic variants at the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). Carotid intima media thickness (IMT) taken as a marker of the atherosclerotic burden is significantly increased, by 80%, in the variant group compared to carriers with the common allele, suggesting increased 5-LO promoter activity associated with the (variant) allele. Dietary arachidonic acid (AA) and LA increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in those with the variants, whereas dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decrease the risk. A lower ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is needed for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Because of genetic variation, the optimal omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio would vary with the disease under consideration.

Study Type : Review

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Diet that Balances Omega-6/3's



After being diagnosed with fatty liver disease, and ignoring it for years the disease progressed thru all three stages of fatty liver disease including stage 2 hepatitis. In 2005 I went through the mainstream medicine treatment, Interferon. That treatment did not cure the disease, in fact it nearly killed me. After 56 weeks of a prolonged program I developed viral pneumonia. I had to have one lung drained and needed a blood transfusion because my body stopped producing red blood cells. My wife was told by the doctors that I might not survive and she should be prepared. I was sent home with a life-time subscription for oxygen and 15 different prescriptions! Since then, I have researched natural cures and developed a diet described in this study along with detoxification, vitamins/supplements, and exercise that has successfully reversed my liver disease. I am sharing that information on a website I am building. If you want to avoid pharmaceuticals and the unnecessary risks associated with them visit my website at skinnyliver.com

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Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

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Easy Turmeric recipes + The Dark Side of Wheat

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