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Abstract Title:

Morphine dependence is attenuated by red ginseng extract and ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K.

Abstract Source:

J Ginseng Res. 2016 Oct ;40(4):445-452. Epub 2016 Aug 21. PMID: 27746699

Abstract Author(s):

Taddesse Yayeh, Kyunghwa Yun, Soyong Jang, Seikwan Oh

Article Affiliation:

Taddesse Yayeh

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Red ginseng and ginsenosides have shown plethoric effects against various ailments. However, little is known regarding the effect of red ginseng on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. We therefore investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) and biotransformed ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K on morphine-induced dependence in mice and rats.

METHODS: While mice were pretreated with RGE and then morphine was injected intraperitoneally, rats were infused with ginsenosides and morphine intracranially for 7 days. Naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome was estimated and conditioned place preference test was performed for physical and psychological dependence, respectively. Western blotting was used to measure protein expressions.

RESULTS: Whereas RGE inhibited the number of naloxone-precipitated jumps and reduced conditioned place preference score, it restored the level of glutathione in mice. Likewise, ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K attenuated morphine-dependent behavioral patterns such as teeth chattering, grooming, wet-dog shake, and escape behavior in rats. Moreover, activated N-methyl-D-aspartate acid receptor subunit 1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the frontal cortex of rats, and cultured cortical neurons from mice were downregulated by ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K despite their differential effects.

CONCLUSION: RGE and biotransformed ginsenosides could be considered as potential therapeutic agents against morphine-induced dependence.

Study Type : Animal Study

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