Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get two FREE E-Books

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat


Why You Don't See Ads on GreenMedInfo

Did you know that GreenMedInfo.com is 100% member supported? It is through your membership that we are able to add research content daily, provide thoughtful articles on groundbreaking health & wellness topics, and continue to educate and empower people on the science supporting natural healing.

Our website has always offered open access to our carefully curated research (and always will) but we recently made the decision to become completely advertisement free.

In order for us to continue, we need your support more than ever. Our memberships start at only $8.00 per month and provide you with enhanced content & features.

We appreciate you supporting our mission and sharing our passion!

For more information on becoming a member of GreenMedInfo.com, click here.

Abstract Title:

Brevetoxin inhalation alters the pulmonary response to influenza A in the male F344 rat.

Abstract Source:

J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011 ;74(5):313-24. PMID: 21240731

Abstract Author(s):

Janet M Benson, Molly L Wolf, Adriana Kajon, Brad M Tibbetts, Andrea J Bourdelais, Daniel G Baden, Thomas H March

Article Affiliation:

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA. jbenson@lrri.org

Abstract:

Epidemiological studies demonstrated that the number of emergency-room visits for respiratory indications increases during periods of Florida Red Tides. The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not repeated brevetoxin inhalation, as may occur during a Florida Red Tide, affects pulmonary responses to influenza A. Male F344 rats were divided into four groups: (1) sham aerosol/no influenza; (2) sham aerosol/influenza; (3) brevetoxin/no influenza; and (4) brevetoxin/influenza. Animals were exposed by nose-only inhalation to vehicle or 50 μg brevetoxin-3/m3, 2 h/d for 12 d. On d 6 of aerosol exposure, groups 2 and 4 were administered 10,000 plaque-forming units of influenza A, strain HKX-31 (H3N2), by intratracheal instillation. Subgroups were euthanized at 2, 4, and 7 d post influenza treatment. Lungs were evaluated for viral load, cytokine content, and histopathologic changes. Influenza virus was cleared from the lungs over the 7-d period; however, there was significantly more virus remaining in the group 4 lungs compared to group 2. Influenza virus significantly increased interleukins-1α and -6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in lung; brevetoxin exposure significantly enhanced the influenza-induced response. At 7 d, the severity of perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammatory cell infiltrates was greatest in group 4. Bronchiolitis persisted, with low incidence and severity, only in group 4 at d 7. These results suggest that repeated inhalation exposure to brevetoxin may delay virus particle clearance and recovery from influenza A infection in the rat lung.

Study Type : Animal Study

Print Options


Key Research Topics

Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get two FREE E-Books

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Depression: 21st Century Solutions + The Dark Side of Wheat

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2018 GreenMedInfo.com, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.