Anti-Streptococcus mutans efficacy of Thai herbal formula used as a remedy for dental caries.
Pharm Biol. 2012 Apr 10. Epub 2012 Apr 10. PMID: 22489572
Faculty of Traditional Thai Medicine , Songkhla , Thailand.
Context: Traditional knowledge of herbal remedies plays an important role in the search for more effective alternative treatment of a variety of disorders. The ethnobotanical surveys in southern Thailand have revealed that 35 Thai herbal formulas have been used by Thai traditional healers against dental caries. However, the scientific evaluation to confirm their rational uses is scarce. Objective: To test in vitro anti-Streptococcus mutans activity of Thai herbal formulas used against dental caries (THF-DC). Materials and methods: Ethanol extracts of Thai herbal formulas were evaluated for antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Agar disc diffusion was employed as a preliminary screening assay, followed by broth microdilution assay to assess minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Furthermore, medicinal plants contained in the most active THF-DC were investigated for their phytochemicals. Results: Eleven THF-DC extracts exhibited clear inhibition zones of 7.0-22.5 mm against S. mutans. Subsequent determination of their MIC revealed that the formula containing Albizia myriophylla Benth. (Leguminosae), Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. (Zingiberaceae), Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. (Acanthaceae), and Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) was the most active, with MICat 250 µg/mL. Among these medicinal plants, A. myriophylla gave the strongest activity with MIC at 3.9 µg/mL, followed by A. marina with MIC at 62.5 µg/mL. Various classes of bioactive phytochemicals including tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids were found in these extracts. Conclusion: Anti-S. mutans activity of THF-DC extracts was established. Further investigations may be required for the isolation and chemical characterization of the active ingredients in A. myriophylla.