[Natural compounds in chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell tumors--experimental studies].
Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2009 Feb;26(152):156-61. PMID: 19388525
Medical University of Lublin, Department of Clinical Pathomorphology, Poland. email@example.com
Chemoprevention refers to prevention of tumor formation due to administration of nontoxic synthetic or natural compounds, which can block or weaken the influence of carcinogens on target cells or even reverse previously formed lesions. In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma--which belongs to the group of the most aggressive tumors of digestive system with poor prognosis--an effective prevention would be strongly expected. Chemopreventive properties of many complex diets and pure natural compounds were evaluated until now. Most studies were performed on rats exposed to chemical carcinogens, usually N-nitroso-N-methylbenzylamine (NMBA). The best effects were achieved after administration of diallyl sulfide and phenethyl isothiocyanate. Lyophilized black raspberries, blackberries and strawberries, as well as products obtained from leaves and buds of tea plant, elagic acid and resveratrol were also very effective. Mechanisms of chemopreventive action were associated with, i.e., activity of enzymes involved in carcinogen metabolic activation (mostly cytochrome P450 isoenzymes), inhibition of DNA adducts formation and modulation of gene expression involved in regulation of proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. However, some agents e.g., perillyl alcohol, could enhance development of proliferative lesions in esophageal epithelium.