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"CAPE and propolis are naturally occurring epigenetic therapeutic agents."
The scientific and commercial implications of these findings are so important that an international patent application on this finding was published in January, 2013 by the group, Omene C, O'Connor OA and Frenkel K.
This mode of action has been successfully mimicked by pharmaceutical drugs for unresponsive cancers. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a class of drugs designated as epigenetic agents that modulate the activities of tumour suppressor genes, among others. These drugs were originally used for mood disorders, epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases. However, since 2006 they have been approved (Vorinostat and Istodax) for specific lymphomas which are unresponsive to other treatments. A study published in the journal "Experimental Hematology" in 2005 reports that these drugs can
"profoundly decrease proliferation of human lymphoid cancer cell lines."
Just like propolis naturally does with many other types of cancer cells...
Omene C, Kalac M, Wu J, Marchi E, Frenkel K, O'Connor OA. 2014. Propolis and its Active Component, Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), Modulate Breast Cancer Therapeutic Targets via an Epigenetically Mediated Mechanism of Action. J Cancer Sci Ther. 5(10):334-342.
Xiang D, Wang D, He Y, Xie J, Zhong Z, Li Z, Xie J. 2006. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces growth arrest and apoptosis of colon cancer cells via the beta-catenin/T-cell factor signaling. Anticancer Drugs. 17(7):753-62.
Chen MF, Wu CT, Chen YJ, Keng PC, Chen WC.2004. Cell killing and radiosensitization by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in lung cancer cells. J Radiat Res. 45(2):253-60.
Omene CO, Wu J, Frenkel K. 2012. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) derived from propolis, a honeybee product, inhibits growth of breast cancer stem cells. Invest New Drugs. 30(4):1279-88.
Sakajiri S, Kumagai T, Kawamata N, Saitoh T, Said JW, Koeffler HP. 2005. Histone deacetylase inhibitors profoundly decrease proliferation of human lymphoid cancer cell lines. Exp Hematol. 33(1):53-61.