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35,534 Abstracts & Growing Daily. Sourced from the US National Library of Medicine.

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Dosage Study: Resveratrol has variable effects depending on the dose used.


This review describes the dose-dependent health benefits of resveratrol, a polyphenolic antioxidant that is found in a variety of foods, especially grape skin and red wine. Resveratrol provides diverse health benefits including cardioprotection, inhibition of low-density lipoprotein, activation of nitric oxide (NO) production, hindering of platelet aggregation [32] A.A.E. Bertelli, D.E. Giovannini, R.L. Caterina, W. Bernini, M. Migliori and M. Fregoni et al., Antiplatelet activity of cis-resveratrol, Drugs Exp Clin Res 22 (1996), pp. 61-63. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (111) and promotion of anti-inflammatory effects. Studies have shown that at a lower dose, resveratrol acts as an anti-apoptotic agent, providing cardioprotection as evidenced by increased expression in cell survival proteins, improved postischemic ventricular recovery and reduction of myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis and maintains a stable redox environment compared to control. At higher dose, resveratrol acts as a pro-apoptotic compound, inducing apoptosis in cancer cells by exerting a death signal. At higher doses, resveratrol depresses cardiac function, elevates levels of apoptotic protein expressions, results in an unstable redox environment, increases myocardial infarct size and number of apoptotic cells. At high dose, resveratrol not only hinders tumor growth but also inhibits the synthesis of RNA, DNA and protein, causes structural chromosome aberrations, chromatin breaks, chromatin exchanges, weak aneuploidy, higher S-phase arrest, blocks cell proliferation, decreases wound healing, endothelial cell growth by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor, and angiogenesis in healthy tissue cells leading to cell death. Thus, at lower dose, resveratrol can be very useful in maintaining the human health whereas at higher dose, resveratrol has pro-apoptotic actions on healthy cells, but can kill tumor cells.

Dose Response. 2010;8(4):478-500. Epub 2010 Mar 18. PMID: 21191486

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"Dietary flavonoid for preventing colorectal neoplasms."


BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are distributed widely in the plant kingdom; they are especially abundant in fruits and vegetables. More than 5,000 individual flavonoids have been identified and classified into more than 10 subgroups according to their chemical structure. Flavonoids have many possible biological effects that may play a role in cancer prevention. Prior studies have suggested that a high intake of flavonoids may help prevent cancer.OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of dietary flavonoids on the incidence of colorectal adenoma and CRC.SEARCH METHODS: Eligible studies were searched up until July 2011 in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and other CINAHL databases and reference lists of previous reviews.SELECTION CRITERIA: All prospective, controlled interventional studies and observational studies that either assessed the association between flavonoids and risk of CRC incidence or colorectal adenoma recurrence were included.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two investigators independently reviewed the material and extracted the data according to the inclusion criteria; in addition, the methodological quality of the studies was assessed.MAIN RESULTS: Eight studies with 390,769 participants were included. Five studies used a prospective cohort design, two were case-control studies and one a randomised controlled trial (RCT). The methodological quality was measured using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). The three prospective cohort studies were of high methodological quality, and two were of medium quality. The two case-control studies were of medium methodological quality.The results form the studies assessing associations between flavonoids, colorectal cancer and adenomas were contradictory. There was no evidence that total flavonoid intake reduced the risk of colorectal neoplasms. The evidence for Isoflavones, Flavonols, Flavones and Flavanones was conflicting. For Flavan-3-ols, the results from two studies suggested that increased intake of Flavan-3-ols reduced the risk of both CRC and colorectal adenomas. A statistically significant reduced risk of CRC was found with high intake of epicatechin. There was medium quality evidence to support that increased intake of procyanidin and phytoestrogen could reduced the incidence of CRC. There was no evidence that suggested that high anthocyanin intake had an inverse association with colorectal adenomas.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient and conflicting evidence regarding flavonoid intake and the prevention of colorectal neoplasms. It is difficult to determine flavonoid intake. Therefore, more evidence is needed to clarify the association between flavonoids and colorectal neoplasms.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 ;8:CD009350. Epub 2012 Aug 15. PMID: 22895989

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Tea and coffee consumption appear to lower the risk of glioma.


BACKGROUND: Coffee contains many compounds, including antioxidants, which could prevent cancerogenesis, and coffee has been related with lower incidence of cancer at several sites. Tea is also rich in antioxidants, mainly polyphenols. To provide a quantitative overall estimate on the relation between coffee and tea consumption and glioma, we combined all published data, using a meta-analytic approach. METHODS: In September 2012, a bibliography search was carried out in both PubMed and Embase to identify observational studies providing quantitative estimates on the issue. Pooled estimates of the relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Six studies (four cohort and two case-control studies) were available for meta-analysis, for a total of about 2100 cases. The summary RRs and 95 % CIs of glioma for drinkers versus non/occasional drinkers were 0.96(95 % CI: 0.81-1.13) for coffee and 0.86 (95 % CI: 0.78-0.94) for tea, with no heterogeneity between studies. When we compared the highest versus the lowest categories of consumption, the RRs were 1.01 (95 % CI: 0.83-1.22) for coffee, 0.88 (95 % CI: 0.69-1.12) for tea, and 0.75 (95 % CI: 0.54-1.05) for coffee plus tea. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis, although based on few studies, suggests a lack of association between coffee intake and glioma risk, and a tendency, if any, to a lower risk for tea and coffee plus tea drinkers.

Cancer Causes Control. 2012 Dec 18. Epub 2012 Dec 18. PMID: 23247638

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There are statistically significant and meaningful differences in nutritional composition between organic and non-organic crops and crop based foods.


Demand for organic foods is partially driven by consumers' perceptions that they are more nutritious. However, scientific opinion is divided on whether there are significant nutritional differences between organic and non-organic foods, and two recent reviews have concluded that there are no differences. In the present study, we carried out meta-analyses based on 343 peer-reviewed publications that indicate statistically significant and meaningful differences in composition between organic and non-organic crops/crop-based foods. Most importantly, the concentrations of a range of antioxidants such as polyphenolics were found to be substantially higher in organic crops/crop-based foods, with those of phenolic acids, flavanones, stilbenes, flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins being an estimated 19 (95 % CI 5, 33) %, 69 (95 % CI 13, 125) %, 28 (95 % CI 12, 44) %, 26 (95 % CI 3, 48) %, 50 (95 % CI 28, 72) % and 51 (95 % CI 17, 86) % higher, respectively. Many of these compounds have previously been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including CVD and neurodegenerative diseases and certain cancers, in dietary intervention and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the frequency of occurrence of pesticide residues was found to be four times higher in conventional crops, which also contained significantly higher concentrations of the toxic metal Cd. Significant differences were also detected for some other (e.g. minerals and vitamins) compounds. There is evidence that higher antioxidant concentrations and lower Cd concentrations are linked to specific agronomic practices (e.g. non-use of mineral N and P fertilisers, respectively) prescribed in organic farming systems. In conclusion, organic crops, on average, have higher concentrations of antioxidants, lower concentrations of Cd and a lower incidence of pesticide residues than the non-organic comparators across regions and production seasons.

Br J Nutr. 2014 Jun 26:1-18. Epub 2014 Jun 26. PMID: 24968103

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Pomegranate juice prolongs PSA doubling time, inhibits cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in men with prostate cancer.


PURPOSE: Phytochemicals in plants may have cancer preventive benefits through antioxidation and via gene-nutrient interactions. We sought to determine the effects of pomegranate juice (a major source of antioxidants) consumption on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression in men with a rising PSA following primary therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A phase II, Simon two-stage clinical trial for men with rising PSA after surgery or radiotherapy was conducted. Eligible patients had a detectable PSA > 0.2 and < 5 ng/mL and Gleason score < or = 7. Patients were treated with 8 ounces of pomegranate juice daily (Wonderful variety, 570 mg total polyphenol gallic acid equivalents) until disease progression. Clinical end points included safety and effect on serum PSA, serum-induced proliferation and apoptosis of LNCaP cells, serum lipid peroxidation, and serum nitric oxide levels. RESULTS: The study was fully accrued after efficacy criteria were met. There were no serious adverse events reported and the treatment was well tolerated. Mean PSA doubling time significantly increased with treatment from a mean of 15 months at baseline to 54 months posttreatment (P < 0.001). In vitro assays comparing pretreatment and posttreatment patient serum on the growth of LNCaP showed a 12% decrease in cell proliferation and a 17% increase in apoptosis (P = 0.0048 and 0.0004, respectively), a 23% increase in serum nitric oxide (P = 0.0085), and significant (P < 0.02) reductions in oxidative state and sensitivity to oxidation of serum lipids after versus before pomegranate juice consumption. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first clinical trial of pomegranate juice in patients with prostate cancer. The statistically significant prolongation of PSA doubling time, coupled with corresponding laboratory effects on prostate cancer in vitro cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as oxidative stress, warrant further testing in a placebo-controlled study.

Forsch Komplementmed. 2007 Feb;14(1):39-44. Epub 2007 Mar 6. PMID: 16818701

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Ellagic acid therapy reduces chemotherapy induced toxicity, e.g. neutropenia, in hormone refractory prostate cancer patients.


BACKGROUND: Recent phase III studies in hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) showed an improvement in terms of overall survival (OS), objective response (OR) and biochemical response (BR); however, chemotherapy is usually accompanied by negative side effects that determines poor quality of life (QoL) and only marginally improves individual clinical response (ICR) in terms of pain relief and performance status. Ellagic acid is a polyphenol that is found in many species of flowering plants. It is an antioxidant that determines apoptosis, down regulation of IGF-II, activates p21 (waf1/Cip1), mediates the cumulative effect on G1/S transition phase and prevents destruction of p-53 gene by cancer cells. ENDPOINTS: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ellagic acid support therapy on toxicity, OR, ICR and BR in HRPC patients treated with estramustine phosphate and vinorelbine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with HRPC were randomly distributed in two study groups: a control group (group A) who underwent chemotherapy with vinorelbine and estramustine phosphate, and an experimental group (group B) where chemotherapy regimen was associated with ellagic acid. RESULTS: The mean number of chemotherapy cycles/patient was 4 (range 3-8 cycles) and 6.5 (range 5-11) in group A and B patients, respectively. A reduction in systemic toxicity, statistically significant for neutropenia, associated with better results in term of OR rate, ICR, and BR were observed in group B compared with group A. On the contrary no significant difference in OS and PFS was detected between groups. CONCLUSIONS: our study suggests that the use of ellagic acid as support therapy reduces chemotherapy induced toxicity, in particular neutropenia, in HRCP patients; however, further studies are required to confirm our results.

Eur Urol. 2005 Apr;47(4):449-54; discussion 454-5. Epub 2005 Jan 19. PMID: 15774240

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Soy food and tea consumption is inversely related to the risk of developing endometrial cancer.


Certain polyphenols inhibit the activity of aromatase, a critical enzyme in estrogen synthesis that is coded by the CYP19A1 gene. Consumption of polyphenol-rich foods and beverages, thus, may interact with CYP19A1 genetic polymorphisms in the development of endometrial cancer. The authors tested this hypothesis in the Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Study (1997-2003), a population-based case-control study of 1,204 endometrial cancer cases and 1,212 controls. Dietary information was obtained by use of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Genotypes of CYP19A1 at rs28566535, rs1065779, rs752760, rs700519, and rs1870050 were available for 1,042 cases and 1,035 controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Higher intake of soy foods and tea consumption were both inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, with odds ratios of 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.0) for the highest versus the lowest tertiles of intake of soy and 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 06, 0.9) for ever tea consumption. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1065779, rs752760, and rs1870050 with endometrial cancer was modified by tea consumption (p(interaction) < 0.05) but not by soy isoflavone intake. The authors' findings suggest that tea polyphenols may modify the effect of CYP19A1 genetic polymorphisms on the development of endometrial cancer.

Acta Paediatr. 2009 Jan;98(1):127-31. Epub 2008 Aug 4. PMID: 17827443

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Curcumin may enhance the therapeutic effect of gemcitabine in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer.


Curcumin, commonly called diferuloyl methane, is a hydrophobic polyphenol derived from rhizome (turmeric) of the herb Curcuma longa. Extensive research over the last half century has revealed important functions of curcumin. In vitro and in vivo research has shown various activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cytokines release, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, enhancing of the apoptotic process, and anti-angiogenic properties. Curcumin has also been shown to be a mediator of chemo-resistance and radio-resistance. The anti-cancer effect has been seen in a few clinical trials, mainly as a native chemoprevention agent in colon and pancreatic cancer, cervical neoplasia and Barrets metaplasia. Some clinical studies with healthy volunteers revealed a low bioavailability of curcumin, casting doubt on the use of curcumin only as food additive. Our clinical experience with curcumin, along with the anti-metabolite gemcitabine in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma, produced an objective response in less than 10% of patients, with a minor effect on survival. However, the safety of this combination was proved. Curcumin's potent anti-proliferative activity interacting with several intracellular signal transduction pathways may potentiate the anti-tumor effect of gemcitabine. The preclinical data lead to various, but still scarce, clinical studies (some on-going) that demonstrated the possible efficacy of this treatment as a chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent. This review will focus on the clinical evidence, including our experience with curcumin as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent and the in vitro background results.

Curr Med Chem. 2009 Nov 24. PMID: 20214562

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Tea polyphenols (primarily EGCG), significantly reduce PSA, Hepatocyte growth factor, VEG in men with prostate cancer.


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the active compounds in green tea on serum biomarkers in patients with prostate cancer. Twenty-six men with positive prostate biopsies and scheduled for radical prostatectomy were given daily doses of Polyphenon E, which contained 800 mg of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and lesser amounts of (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (a total of 1.3 g of tea polyphenols), until time of radical prostatectomy. Serum was collected before initiation of the drug study and on the day of prostatectomy. Serum biomarkers hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were analyzed by ELISA. Toxicity was monitored primarily through liver function enzymes. Changes in serum components were analyzed statistically using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Cancer-associated fibroblasts were treated with EGCG, and HGF and VEGF protein and mRNA levels were measured. HGF, VEGF, PSA, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio decreased significantly during the study. All of the liver function tests also decreased, five of them significantly: total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and amylase. The decrease in HGF and VEGF was confirmed in prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts in vitro. Our results show a significant reduction in serum levels of PSA, HGF, and VEGF in men with prostate cancer after brief treatment with EGCG (Polyphenon E), with no elevation of liver enzymes. These findings support a potential role for Polyphenon E in the treatment or prevention of prostate cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2009 Jul;2(7):673-82. Epub 2009 Jun 19. PMID: 19542190

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Green tea drinking suppresses proliferation of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes in vivo.


Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is causatively associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Since a high level of HTLV-1 provirus load in circulating lymphocytes is thought to be a risk for ATL and HAM/TSP, diminution of HTLV-1 provirus load in the circulation may prevent these intractable diseases. Our previous study (Jpn J Cancer Res 2000; 91: 34-40) demonstrated that green tea polyphenols inhibit in vitro growth of ATL cells, as well as HTLV-1-infected T-cells. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of green tea polyphenols on HTLV-1 provirus load in peripheral blood lymphocytes on HTLV-1 carriers. We recruited 83 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers to examine HTLV-1 provirus DNA with or without administration of capsulated green tea extract powder. Thirty-seven subjects were followed up for 5 months by measuring HTLV-1 provirus load after daily intake of 9 capsules of green tea extract powder per day (equivalent to 10 cups of regular green tea), and 46 subjects lived ad libitum without intake of any green tea capsule. The real-time PCR quantification of HTLV-1 DNA revealed a wide range of variation of HTLV-1 provirus load among asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (0.2-200.2 copies of HTLV-1 provirus load per 1000 peripheral blood lymphocytes). Daily intake of the capsulated green tea for 5 months significantly diminished the HTLV-1 provirus load as compared with the controls (P = 0.031). These results suggest that green tea drinking suppresses proliferation of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes in vivo.

Cancer Sci. 2004 Jul;95(7):596-601. PMID: 15245597

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The regular consumption of apples reduces colorectal cancer risk.


Laboratory in-vitro studies and animal experiments showing the potential health benefits from apples raises the question to what extent the regular consumption of apples in humans may have a beneficial effect on colorectal cancer risk. A total of 592 incident cases of colorectal cancer have been enrolled in a hospital-based case-control study. The comparison group included 765 controls chosen from the patients of the same hospital without history of cancer and admitted for treatment of nonneoplastic conditions. Interviews of both cases and controls were conducted in the hospital setting by trained interviewers. The median intake of fruits among cases was lower than in controls (9.5 vs. 11 servings/week) and the difference was statistically significant. Apples were the most frequent fruit consumed by the study participants and about 80% of variability in the total fruit consumption resulted from the intake of apples. We did not observe any significant statistical differences in consumption of berries, citrus, or stone fruits and other kinds of fruits across cases and controls. The adjusted estimates of colorectal cancer risk related to the daily consumption of apples (in quintiles) were based on the unconditional multivariate logistic model, which considered the set of potential confounding variables such as demographic characteristics of participants (age, gender, place of residency, marital status, tobacco smoking), total energy intake, intake of vegetables and fruits without apples. The results of the logistic analysis showed that the adjusted risk of colorectal cancer inversely correlated with daily number of apple servings. The reduced risk of colorectal cancer of border significance level was already observed at the consumption of at least one apple a day (odds ratio=0.65, 95% CI: 0.39-1.09), but at the intake of more than one apple a day the risk was reduced by about 50% (odds ratio=0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79). Neither the consumption of vegetables nor other fruits have shown beneficial effects on the risk of colorectal cancer. The observed protective effect of apple consumption on colorectal risk may result from their rich content of flavonoid and other polyphenols, which can inhibit cancer onset and cell proliferation.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009 Mar;104(3):262-71. Epub 2009 Jan 20. PMID: 19926998

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Green tea consumption is associated with reduced mortality due to all causes and due to cardiovascular disease.


CONTEXT: Green tea polyphenols have been extensively studied as cardiovascular disease and cancer chemopreventive agents in vitro and in animal studies. However, the effects of green tea consumption in humans remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between green tea consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study initiated in 1994 among 40,530 Japanese adults aged 40 to 79 years without history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer at baseline. Participants were followed up for up to 11 years (1995-2005) for all-cause mortality and for up to 7 years (1995-2001) for cause-specific mortality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes. RESULTS: Over 11 years of follow-up (follow-up rate, 86.1%), 4209 participants died, and over 7 years of follow-up (follow-up rate, 89.6%), 892 participants died of cardiovascular disease and 1134 participants died of cancer. Green tea consumption was inversely associated with mortality due to all causes and due to cardiovascular disease. The inverse association with all-cause mortality was stronger in women (P = .03 for interaction with sex). In men, the multivariate hazard ratios of mortality due to all causes associated with different green tea consumption frequencies were 1.00 (reference) for less than 1 cup/d, 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.05) for 1 to 2 cups/d, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.85-1.06) for 3 to 4 cups/d, and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.79-0.98) for 5 or more cups/d, respectively (P = .03 for trend). The corresponding data for women were 1.00, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84-1.15), 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.95), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.89), respectively (P

JAMA. 2006 Sep 13;296(10):1255-65. PMID: 16968850

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Flavonoid consumption reduces the risk of esophageal cancer.


Flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are bioactive polyphenolic components of fruits and vegetables that may account for part of the protective effect of raw fruit and vegetable consumption in esophageal cancer. We studied the relationship between esophageal cancer and dietary proanthocyanidins, flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses (anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols and isoflavonoids) using recently developed USDA and Tufts flavonoid and proanthocyanidin databases. The study was a population-based, case-control analysis of 161 white men with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), 114 white and 218 black men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 678 white and 557 black male controls who lived in 3 areas of the United States. Neither total flavonoid nor proanthocyanidin intake was associated with EAC and ESCC in either white or black men. In white men, inverse associations were observed between anthocyanidin intake and EAC (4th vs. 1st quartile odds ratio [OR], 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.91; p(trend) = 0.04) and between isoflavonoid intake and ESCC (4th vs. 1st quartile OR, 0.43, 95% CI, 0.20-0.93; p(trend) = 0.01). None of the associations remained significant after adjusting for dietary fiber, which is strongly correlated with flavonoid consumption. We conclude that total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins do not have strong protective effects in either EAC or ESCC. Some protective effects were evident in flavonoid subclasses and population subgroups. In white men, foods rich in anthocyanidins may have chemopreventive effects in EAC and those rich in isoflavonoids may do so in ESCC.

Phytother Res. 2007 Jun;21(6):501-6. PMID: 19444905

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Tart cherry juice decreases oxidative stress in healthy older men and women.


Compared with young adults, older adults have significantly impaired capacities to resist oxidative damage when faced with acute stress such as ischemia/reperfusion. This impairment likely contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older adults in response to acute trauma, infections, and the susceptibility to diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Consumption of foods high in polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have been associated with improved health, but the mechanisms contributing to these salutary effects remain to be fully established. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of tart cherry juice containing high levels of anthocyanins improves the capacity of older adults to resist oxidative damage during acute oxidative stress. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 volunteers [6 men and 6 women; age 69 +/- 4 y (61-75 y)] consumed in random order either tart cherry juice or placebo (240 mL twice daily for 14 d) separated by a 4-wk washout period. The capacity to resist oxidative damage was measured as the changes in plasma F(2)-isoprostane levels in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) before and after each treatment. The tart cherry juice intervention reduced the I/R-induced F(2)-isoprostane response (P

J Nutr. 2009 Oct;139(10):1896-900. Epub 2009 Aug 19. PMID: 19692530

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Oral curcumin is safe and feasible in patients with pancreatic cancer.


PURPOSE: Curcumin, a plant-derived natural polyphenol, could be a promising anti-cancer drug and shows synergic effects with cytotoxic agents. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of combination therapy using curcumin with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. METHODS: Gemcitabine-resistant patients with pancreatic cancer received 8 g oral curcumin daily in combination with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was safety for phase I and feasibility of oral curcumin for phase II study. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in the phase I study and oral curcumin 8 g/day was selected as the recommended dose for the phase II study. No patients were withdrawn from this study because of the intolerability of curcumin, which met the primary endpoint of the phase II study, and the median compliance rate of oral curcumin was 100% (Range 79-100%). Median survival time after initiation of curcumin was 161 days (95% confidence interval 109-223 days) and 1-year survival rate was 19% (4.4-41.4%). Plasma curcumin levels ranged from 29 to 412 ng/ml in five patients tested. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy using 8 g oral curcumin daily with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy was safe and feasible in patients with pancreatic cancer and warrants further investigation into its efficacy.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010 Sep 22. Epub 2010 Sep 22. PMID: 20859741

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Dosage Study: A daily dose of 3.6 g of curcumin engendered 62% and 57% decreases in inducible PGE(2) production in blood samples taken 1 hour after dose on days 1 and 29, respectively, in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.


Curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant derived from a dietary spice, exhibits anticancer activity in rodents and in humans. Its efficacy appears to be related to induction of glutathione S-transferase enzymes, inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production, or suppression of oxidative DNA adduct (M(1)G) formation. We designed a dose-escalation study to explore the pharmacology of curcumin in humans. Fifteen patients with advanced colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapies consumed capsules compatible with curcumin doses between 0.45 and 3.6 g daily for up to 4 months. Levels of curcumin and its metabolites in plasma, urine, and feces were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Three biomarkers of the potential activity of curcumin were translated from preclinical models and measured in patient blood leukocytes: glutathione S-transferase activity, levels of M(1)G, and PGE(2) production induced ex vivo. Dose-limiting toxicity was not observed. Curcumin and its glucuronide and sulfate metabolites were detected in plasma in the 10 nmol/L range and in urine. A daily dose of 3.6 g curcumin engendered 62% and 57% decreases in inducible PGE(2) production in blood samples taken 1 hour after dose on days 1 and 29, respectively, of treatment compared with levels observed immediately predose (P

Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Oct 15;10(20):6847-54. PMID: 15501961

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Dosage Study: Turmeric extract can be administered safely to patients at doses of up to 2.2 g daily, equivalent to 180 mg of curcumin.


Curcuma spp. extracts, particularly the dietary polyphenol curcumin, prevent colon cancer in rodents. In view of the sparse information on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of curcumin in humans, a dose-escalation pilot study of a novel standardized Curcuma extract in proprietary capsule form was performed at doses between 440 and 2200 mg/day, containing 36-180 mg of curcumin. Fifteen patients with advanced colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapies received Curcuma extract daily for up to 4 months. Activity of glutathione S-transferase and levels of a DNA adduct (M(1)G) formed by malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation and prostaglandin biosynthesis, were measured in patients' blood cells. Oral Curcuma extract was well tolerated, and dose-limiting toxicity was not observed. Neither curcumin nor its metabolites were detected in blood or urine, but curcumin was recovered from feces. Curcumin sulfate was identified in the feces of one patient. Ingestion of 440 mg of Curcuma extract for 29 days was accompanied by a 59% decrease in lymphocytic glutathione S-transferase activity. At higher dose levels, this effect was not observed. Leukocytic M(1)G levels were constant within each patient and unaffected by treatment. Radiologically stable disease was demonstrated in five patients for 2-4 months of treatment. The results suggest that (a) Curcuma extract can be administered safely to patients at doses of up to 2.2 g daily, equivalent to 180 mg of curcumin; (b) curcumin has low oral bioavailability in humans and may undergo intestinal metabolism; and (c) larger clinical trials of Curcuma extract are merited.

Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Jul;7(7):1894-900. PMID: 11448902

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Resveratrol reduces insulin-like growth factor levels in healthy volunteers, indicating it may have chemopreventive properties.


Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has cancer chemopreventive properties in preclinical models. It has been shown to downregulate the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) in rodents. The purpose of the study was to assess its safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects on circulating levels of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) after repeated dosing. Forty healthy volunteers ingested resveratrol at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g daily for 29 days. Levels of resveratrol and its metabolites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-UV in plasma obtained before and up to 24 hours after a dose between days 21 and 28. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured by ELISA in plasma taken predosing and on day 29. Resveratrol was safe, but the 2.5 and 5 g doses caused mild to moderate gastrointestinal symptoms. Resveratrol-3-O-sulfate, resveratrol-4'-O-glucuronide, and resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide were major plasma metabolites. Maximal plasma levels and areas under the concentration versus time curve for the metabolites dramatically exceeded those for resveratrol, in the case of areas under the concentration versus time curve, by up to 20.3-fold. Compared with predosing values, the ingestion of resveratrol caused a decrease in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 (P

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Apr 2;394(2):360-5. Epub 2010 Mar 6. PMID: 20935227

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Safety & Dosage Review: Resveratrol.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Trans-resveratrol is a polyphenol, which is found in red wine and has cancer chemo-preventive properties and disease-preventive properties. The pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol have been investigated in single-dose studies and in studies with relatively low dosages. The present study aimed to investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetics and tolerability of trans-resveratrol 2000 mg twice daily with food, quercetin and alcohol (ethanol).METHODS: This was a two-period, open-label, single-arm, within-subject control study in eight healthy subjects. The steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol 2000 mg twice daily were studied with a standard breakfast, a high-fat breakfast, quercetin 500 mg twice daily and 5% alcohol 100 mL. Trans-resveratrol plasma concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.RESULTS: The mean (SD) area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC(12)) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of trans-resveratrol were 3558 (2195) ng * h/mL and 1274 (790) ng/mL, respectively, after the standard breakfast. The high-fat breakfast significantly decreased the AUC(12) and C(max) by 45% and 46%, respectively, when compared with the standard breakfast. Quercetin 500 mg twice daily or 5% alcohol 100 mL did not influence trans-resveratrol pharmacokinetics. Diarrhoea was reported in six of the eight subjects. Significant but not clinically relevant changes from baseline were observed in serum potassium and total bilirubin levels.CONCLUSION: Trans-resveratrol 2000 mg twice daily resulted in adequate exposure and was well tolerated by healthy subjects, although diarrhoea was frequently observed. In order to maximize trans-resveratrol exposure, it should be taken with a standard breakfast and not with a high-fat meal. Furthermore, combined intake with quercetin or alcohol did not influence trans-resveratrol exposure.

Clin Pharmacokinet. 2010 Jul 1;49(7):449-54. PMID: 20528005

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Tea polyphenol has potential to be a therapeutic adjuvant against human metastatic breast cancer.


The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol present in abundance in widely consumed tea, inhibits cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis in breast cancer patients. EGCG in 400 mg capsules was orally administered three times daily to breast cancer patients undergoing treatment with radiotherapy. Parameters related to cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis were analyzed while blood samples were collected at different time points to determine efficacy of the EGCG treatment. Compared to patients who received radiotherapy alone, those given radiotherapy plus EGCG for an extended time period (two to eight weeks) showed significantly lower serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and reduced activation of metalloproteinase-9 and metalloproteinase-2 (MMP9/MMP2). Addition of sera obtained from patients treated with combination of radiotherapy and EGCG feeding for 2-8 weeks to in vitro cultures of highly-metastatic human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells resulted in the following significant changes: (1) suppression of cell proliferation and invasion; (2) arrest of cell cycles at the G0/G1 phase; (3) reduction of activation of MMP9/MMP2, expressions of Bcl-2/Bax, c-Met receptor, NF-κB, and the phosphorylation of Akt. MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to 5-10 µM EGCG also showed significant augmentation of the apoptosis inducing effects of γ-radiation, concomitant with reduced NF-κB protein level and AKT phosphorylation. These results provide hitherto unreported evidence that EGCG potentiated efficacy of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients, and raise the possibility that this tea polyphenol has potential to be a therapeutic adjuvant against human metastatic breast cancer.

Curr Mol Med. 2012 Feb 1 ;12(2):163-76. PMID: 22280355

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Green tea drinkers with susceptible IGF1 (CA)19/(CA)19 and (CA)19/X genotypes had a significant reduced risk of lung cancer.


Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are mediators of growth hormones; they have an influence on cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 could suppress the mitogenic action of IGFs. Interestingly, tea polyphenols could substantially reduce IGF1 and increase IGFBP3. In this study, we evaluated the effects of smoking, green tea consumption, as well as IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP3 polymorphisms, on lung cancer risk. Questionnaires were administered to obtain the subjects' characteristics, including smoking habits and green tea consumption from 170 primary lung cancer cases and 340 healthy controls. Genotypes for IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP3 were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Lung cancer cases had a higher proportion of smoking, green tea consumption of less than one cup per day, exposure to cooking fumes, and family history of lung cancer than controls. After adjusting the confounding effect, an elevated risk was observed in smokers who never drank green tea, as compared to smokers who drank green tea more than one cup per day (odds ratio (OR) = 13.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.96-58.51). Interaction between smoking and green tea consumption on lung cancer risk was also observed. Among green tea drinkers who drank more than one cup per day, IGF1 (CA)(19)/(CA)(19) and (CA)(19)/X genotypes carriers had a significantly reduced risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.01-0.44) compared with IGF1 X/X carriers. Smoking-induced pulmonary carcinogenesis could be modulated by green tea consumption and their growth factor environment.

PLoS One. 2012 ;7(2):e30951. Epub 2012 Feb 7. PMID: 22347413

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A polyphenol-rich whole food supplement significantly effected the rate of PSA progression among men with prostate cancer.


Background:Polyphenol-rich foods such as pomegranate, green tea, broccoli and turmeric have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in laboratory models involving angiogenesis, apoptosis and proliferation. Although some have been investigated in small, phase II studies, this combination has never been evaluated within an adequately powered randomised controlled trial.Methods:In total, 199 men, average age 74 years, with localised prostate cancer, 60% managed with primary active surveillance (AS) or 40% with watchful waiting (WW) following previous interventions, were randomised (2:1) to receive an oral capsule containing a blend of pomegranate, green tea, broccoli and turmeric, or an identical placebo for 6 months.Results:The median rise in PSA in the food supplement group (FSG) was 14.7% (95% confidence intervals (CIs) 3.4-36.7%), as opposed to 78.5% in the placebo group (PG) (95% CI 48.1-115.5%), difference 63.8% (P=0.0008). In all, 8.2% of men in the FSG and 27.7% in the PG opted to leave surveillance at the end of the intervention (χ(2) P=0.014). There were no significant differences within the predetermined subgroups of age, Gleason grade, treatment category or body mass index. There were no differences in cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar, C-reactive protein or adverse events.Conclusions:This study found a significant short-term, favourable effect on the percentage rise in PSA in men managed with AS and WW following ingestion of this well-tolerated, specific blend of concentrated foods. Its influence on decision-making suggests that this intervention is clinically meaningful, but further trials will evaluate longer term clinical effects, and other makers of disease progression.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 11 March 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.6.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2014 Mar 11. Epub 2014 Mar 11. PMID: 24614693

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In this study the intake of anthocyanidins was associated with a 57% reduction in the risk of incident oesophageal and gastric cancers.


BACKGROUND: Flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds concentrated in fruits and vegetables, have experimentally demonstrated chemopreventive effects against oesophageal and gastric cancer. Few epidemiologic studies have examined flavonoid intake and incidence of these cancers, and none have considered survival.METHODS: In this USA multicentre population-based study, case participants (diagnosed during 1993-1995 with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OEA, n=274), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA, n=248), oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OES, n=191), and other gastric adenocarcinoma (OGA, n=341)) and frequency-matched controls (n=662) were interviewed. Food frequency questionnaire responses were linked with USDA Flavonoid Databases and available literature for six flavonoid classes and lignans. Case participants were followed until 2000 for vital status. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) were estimated, comparing highest with lowest intake quartiles, using polytomous logistic and proportional hazards regressions, respectively.RESULTS: Little or no consistent association was found for total flavonoid intake (main population sources: black tea, orange/grapefruit juice, and wine) and incidence or survival for any tumour type. Intake of anthocyanidins, common in wine and fruit juice, was associated with a 57% reduction in the risk of incident OEA (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.29-0.66) and OES (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.26-0.70). The ORs for isoflavones, for which coffee was the main source, were increased for all tumours, except OES. Anthocyanidins were associated with decreased risk of mortality for GCA (HR=0.63, 95% CI=0.42-0.95) and modestly for OEA (HR=0.87, 95% CI=0.60-1.26), but CIs were wide.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, if confirmed, suggest that increased dietary anthocyanidin intake may reduce incidence and improve survival for these cancers.

Br J Cancer. 2015 ;112 Suppl:1291-300. Epub 2015 Mar 31. PMID: 25668011

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Green tea induced changes in NFκB and systemic oxidation, and uptake of GT polyphenols in prostate tissue they may have a role in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.


BACKGROUND: Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest chemopreventive effects of green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) in prostate cancer. In the current study we determined the effect of GT and BT consumption on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression.METHODS: In this exploratory, open label, phase II trial 113 men diagnosed with prostate cancer were randomized to consume six cups daily of brewed GT, BT or water (control) prior to radical prostatectomy (RP). The primary endpoint was prostate tumor markers of cancer development and progression determined by tissue immunostaining of proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, Tunel), inflammation (nuclear and cytoplasmic nuclear factor kappa B [NFκB]) and oxidation (8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine [8OHdG]). Secondary endpoints of urinary oxidation, tea polyphenol uptake in prostate tissue, and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography and ELISA analysis.RESULTS: Ninety three patients completed the intervention. There was no significant difference in markers of proliferation, apoptosis and oxidation in RP tissue comparing GT and BT to water control. Nuclear staining of NFκB was significantly decreased in RP tissue of men consuming GT (P = 0.013) but not BT (P = 0.931) compared to water control. Tea polyphenols were detected in prostate tissue from 32 of 34 men consuming GT but not in the other groups. Evidence of a systemic antioxidant effect was observed (reducedurinary 8OHdG) only with GT consumption (P = 0.03). GT, but not BT or water, also led to a small but statistically significant decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (P = 0.04).CONCLUSION: Given the GT-induced changes in NFκB and systemic oxidation, and uptake of GT polyphenols in prostate tissue, future longer-term studies are warranted to further examine the role of GT for prostate cancer prevention and treatment, and possibly for other prostate conditions such as prostatitis.

Prostate. 2015 Apr 1 ;75(5):550-9. Epub 2014 Dec 24. PMID: 25545744

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This study supports the hypothesis that black raspberries might be beneficial to colorectal cancer patients through the regulation of multiple metabolites.


Dietary intervention of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) in a group of human colorectal cancer patients has demonstrated beneficial effects, including proapoptosis, antiproliferation, and antiangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate BRB-mediated metabolite changes from this same cohort of patients. Twenty-eight colorectal cancer patients were given 60 g BRB powder daily for 1 to 9 weeks. Urine and plasma specimens were collected before and after BRB intervention. A mass spectrometry-based nontargeted metabolomic analysis was conducted on each specimen. A total of more than 400 metabolites were annotated in each specimen. Of these 34 and 6 metabolites were significantly changed by BRBs in urine and plasma, respectively. Increased levels of 4-methylcatechol sulfate in both post-BRB urine and post-BRB plasma were significantly correlated with a higher level of apoptotic marker (TUNEL) in post-BRB tumors. One tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites, cis-aconitate, was increased in post-BRB urine. Furthermore, BRB-derived polyphenols were absorbed and metabolized to various benzoate species, which were significantly increased in post-BRB specimens. Increased benzoate levels were positively correlated with enhanced levels of amino acid metabolite. These results suggest that BRBs induce significant metabolic changes and affect energy generating pathways.This study supports the hypothesis that BRBs might be beneficial to colorectal cancer patients through the regulation of multiple metabolites. Cancer Prev Res; 8(8); 743-50.©2015 AACR.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 Aug ;8(8):743-50. Epub 2015 Jun 8. PMID: 26054356

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Consumption of date fruit may reduce colon cancer risk without inducing changes in the microbiota.


The reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. A total of twenty-two healthy human volunteers were randomly assigned to either a control group (maltodextrin-dextrose, 37·1 g) or an intervention group (seven dates, approximately 50 g). Each arm was of 21 d duration and was separated by a 14-d washout period in a cross-over manner. Changes in the growth of microbiota were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis, whereas SCFA levels were assessed using HPLC. Further, ammonia concentrations, faecal water genotoxicity and anti-proliferation ability were also assessed using different assays, which included cell work and the Comet assay. Accordingly, dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and bowel movement assessment were also carried out. Although the consumption of dates did not induce significant changes in the growth of select bacterial groups or SCFA, there were significant increases in bowel movements and stool frequency (P

Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct ;114(8):1226-36. PMID: 26428278

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Pomegranate juice had beneficial effects on hormonal biomarkers of breast cancer risk in this preliminary study.


Pomegranate is a rich source of polyphenols. Laboratory studies suggest polyphenols may exert breast cancer preventive effects through modulation of endogenous sex hormone levels. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pomegranate juice consumption on serum levels of estradiol, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Sixty-four healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to drink 8 ounces of either 100% commercial pomegranate juice (intervention) or apple juice (control) for 3 weeks. Overall, women in the intervention group did not experience any significant decline in serum sex hormones or SHBG compared to women in the control group. In subgroup analyses restricted to 38 normal weight women, women in the intervention group compared to control group had a significant decline in estrone (pg/mL) and testosterone levels (pg/mL): pomegranate: -61.6 [95% confidence interval (CI): -175.8 to 52.6), apple: 1.1 (95% CI: -5.4 to 7.7), P = 0.05, and pomegranate: -289.1 (95% CI: -630.7 to 52.5), apple: 79.6 (95% CI: -77.8 to 236.9), P = 0.03, respectively. Because of severalstudy limitations, results should be considered preliminary. Additional larger trials would be needed to determine effects in normal versus overweight/obese women.

Nutr Cancer. 2015 Oct ;67(7):1113-9. Epub 2015 Sep 1. PMID: 26327495

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Honey supplementation enhanced DNA repair activity in a residential population chronically exposed to pesticides.


SCOPE: Glyphosate (GLY), and organophosphorus (OP) insecticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) may cause DNA damage and cancer in exposed individuals through mitochondrial dysfunction. Polyphenols ubiquitously present in fruits and vegetables, have been viewed as antioxidant molecules, but also influence mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, honey containing polyphenol compounds was evaluated for its potential protective effect on pesticide-induced genotoxicity.METHODS AND RESULTS: Honey extracts from four floral organic sources were evaluated for their polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and potential protective effects on pesticide-related mitochondrial destabilization, ROSN formation and DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial and neuronal cells. The protective effect of honey was, then evaluated in a residential population chronically exposed to pesticides. The four honey types showed a different polyphenol profile associated with a different antioxidant power. The pesticide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction parallels ROS formation from mitochondria (mtROS) and consequent DNA damage. Honey extracts efficiently inhibited pesticide-induced mtROS formation, and reduced DNA damage by upregulation of DNA repair through NFR2. Honey supplementation enhanced DNA repair activity in a residential population chronically exposed to pesticides, which resulted in a marked reduction of pesticide-induced DNA lesions.CONCLUSION: These results provide new insight regarding the effect of honey containing polyphenols on pesticide-induced DNA damage response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Apr 30. Epub 2016 Apr 30. PMID: 27129605

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This is the first evidence of a modulatory effect of orally administered resveratrol on tryptophan metabolism in humans.


BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a polyphenol compound found in various nutrients that was shown to have immunomodulatory, anti-cancerogenic, and cardioprotective effects. The regulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting enzyme in inflammatory tryptophan metabolism, has been proposed to be involved in resveratrol's biological effects. These observations, however, rely on in vitro findings and animal studies. Therefore, we assessed the impact of resveratrol on tryptophan metabolism after oral intake in humans.METHODS: Healthy volunteers were orally administrated 5g resveratrol (n=8) or placebo (n=2) in a pilot study. IDO activity was determined by analyzing plasma levels of tryptophan and kynurenine. Determination of the immune activation marker neopterin was included in the analysis.RESULTS: Resveratrol administration significantly reduced tryptophan levels 2.5h (p

Pharmacol Rep. 2016 Aug 20 ;68(5):1065-1068. Epub 2016 Aug 20. PMID: 27552061

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Prophylactic administration of conventional form of silymarin tablets could significantly reduce the severity of radiotherapy induced mucositis.


Mucositis is a frequent severe complication of radiation therapy in patient with head and neck cancer. Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the milk thistle that exhibits strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluate silymarin efficacy in prevention of radiotherapy induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer, as the first human study. During this pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effect of oral silymarin 420 mg daily in three divided doses starting at the first day of radiotherapy for 6 weeks, on oral mucositis occurrence was assessed. Twenty-seven patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria assigned to the silymarin or placebo group. World Health Organization and National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria oral mucositis grading scale scores were recorded at baseline and weekly during these 6 weeks. The median World Health Organization and National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria scores were significantly lower in silymarin group at the end of the first to sixth week (p 

Phytother Res. 2016 Aug 23. Epub 2016 Aug 23. PMID: 27555604

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These results indicate that flavonoid intake is associated with lower head and neck cancer risk.


Background: Flavonoids are bioactive polyphenolic compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and beverages of plant origin. Previous studies have shown that flavonoid intake reduces the risk of certain cancers; however, few studies to date have examined associations of flavonoids with upper gastrointestinal cancers or used prospective cohorts.Objective: Our study examined the association between intake of flavonoids (anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones) and risk of head and neck, esophageal, and gastric cancers.Methods: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study is a prospective cohort study that consists of 469,008 participants. Over a mean 12-y follow-up, 2453 head and neck (including 1078 oral cavity, 424 pharyngeal, and 817 laryngeal), 1165 esophageal (890 adenocarcinoma and 275 squamous cell carcinoma), and 1297 gastric (625 cardia and 672 noncardia) cancer cases were identified. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate HRs and CIs for the associations between flavonoid intake assessed at study baseline and cancer outcomes. For 56 hypotheses examined, P-trend values were adjusted using the Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) procedure for false discovery rate control.Results: The highest quintile of total flavonoid intake was associated with a 24% lower risk of head and neck cancer (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.86; BH-adjusted 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P-trend = 0.02) compared with the lowest quintile. Notably, anthocyanidins were associated with a 28% lower risk of head and neck cancer (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.82; BH-adjusted 95% CI: 0.59, 0.87; P-trend = 0.0005), and flavanones were associated with a 22% lower risk of head and neck cancer (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.89; BH-adjusted 95% CI: 0.64, 0.94; P-trend: 0.02). No associations between flavonoid intake and risk of esophageal or gastric cancers were found.Conclusions: Our results indicate that flavonoid intake is associated with lower head and neck cancer risk. These associations suggest a protective effect of dietary flavonoids on head and neck cancer risk, and thus potential as a risk reduction strategy.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19. PMID: 28724656

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A Black Raspberry extract could prevent the initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis in the digestive tract and esophagus.


Polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavonoid glycosides) in berries prevent the initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis in rat's digestive tract and esophagus, in part, via anti-inflammatory pathways. Angiogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of black raspberry extract (BRE) on two organ specific primary human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells, (HIMEC) and human esophageal microvascular endothelial cells (HEMEC), isolated from surgically resected human intestinal and donor discarded esophagus, respectively. HEMEC and HIMEC were stimulated with TNF-α/IL-1β with or without BRE. The anti-inflammatory effects of BRE were assessed based upon COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression, PGE2 production, NFκB p65 subunit nuclear translocation as well as endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion. The anti-angiogenic effects of BRE were assessedon cell migration, proliferation and tube formation following VEGF stimulation as well as on activation of Akt, MAPK and JNK signaling pathways. BRE inhibited TNF-α/IL-1β-induced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation, PGE2 production, up-regulation of COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression and leukocyte binding in HEMEC but not in HIMEC. BRE attenuated VEGF-induced cell migration, proliferation and tube formation in both HEMEC and HIMEC. The anti-angiogenic effect of BRE is mediated by inhibition of Akt, MAPK and JNK phosphorylations. BRE exerted differential anti-inflammatory effects between HEMEC and HIMEC following TNF-α/IL-1β activation whereas demonstrated similar anti-angiogenic effects following VEGF stimulation in both cell lines. These findings may provide more insight into the anti-tumorigenic capacities of BRE in human disease and cancer.

Microvasc Res. 2014 Oct 28 ;97C:167-180. Epub 2014 Oct 28. PMID: 25446010

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chokeberry juice inhibited Caco-2 cell proliferation by causing G(2)/M cell cycle arrest.


Consumption of berries and red fruits rich in polyphenols may contribute to the reduction of colon cancer through mechanisms not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the response of subconfluent Caco-2 cells (a human colon carcinoma model) to repetitive exposure (2 h a day for a 4-day period) of a subtoxic dose of a chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice containing mixed polyphenols. To mimic physiological conditions, we subjected the chokeberry juice to in vitro gastric and pancreatic digestion. The effects on viability, proliferation and cell cycle were determined, and changes in the expression of genes in response to the chokeberry treatment were screened using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays. Exposure to the chokeberry juice inhibited Caco-2 cell proliferation by causing G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. We detected changes in the expression of a group of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation and cell cycle regulation, as well as those associated to colorectal cancer. A selection of these genes was further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Among these, the tumor suppressor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), whose expression is known to be reduced in the majority of early adenomas and carcinomas, was up-regulated by the treatment both at the mRNA and protein levels (as shown by flow cytometry analysis). CEACAM1, with a significant regulatory role on cell proliferation of particular interest at early stages of cancer development, may be a potential target for chemoprevention by food components such as those present in polyphenol-rich fruits.

J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Apr ;18(4):259-71. Epub 2006 Jul 24. PMID: 16860979

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Tetrahydrocurcumin exhibited significant cell growth inhibition by inducing MCF-7 cells to undergo mitochondrial apoptosis and G2/M arrest.


Curcumin (CUR) is a major naturally-occurring polyphenol of Curcuma species, which is commonly used as a yellow coloring and flavoring agent in foods. In recent years, it has been reported that CUR exhibits significant anti-tumor activity in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic features of CUR have indicated poor oral bioavailability, which may be related to its extensive metabolism. The CUR metabolites might be responsible for the antitumor pharmacological effects in vivo. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is one of the major metabolites of CUR. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and associated mechanism of action of THC in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells for the first time. Here, THC exhibited significant cell growth inhibition by inducing MCF-7 cells to undergo mitochondrial apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Moreover, co-treatment of MCF-7 cells with THC and p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, effectively reversed the dissipation in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and blocked THC-mediated Bax up-regulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation, caspase-3 activation as well as p21 up-regulation, suggesting p38 MAPK might mediate THC-induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Taken together, these results indicate THC might be an active antitumor form of CUR in vivo, and it might be selected as a potentially effective agent for treatment of human breast cancer.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 May ;67:193-200. Epub 2014 Mar 1. PMID: 24593988

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Extracts of T. sinensis inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells.


Toona sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine belonging to the Meliaceae family. The aim of this study was to identify the potential compounds responsible for anticancer activity of T. sinensis. The EtOAc extracts of leaves and woods of T. sinensis inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Our phytochemical research of these extracts led to the isolation of various polyphenolic constituents. The chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Among isolates, gallic acid and loropetalin D showed inhibition of cell proliferation and possible induction of apoptosis in these cells. Overall, our results revealed the importance of T. sinensis as a chemopreventive medicinal plant. In addition, an analysis of structure-activity relationship indicated that the number of galloyl groups affects their antileukemic potency.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Sep 1 ;24(17):4286-90. Epub 2014 Jul 14. PMID: 25074815

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Lemon balm extract may be considered as a candidate for oral or topical photoprotective agents against UVB-induced skin damage.


BACKGROUND: Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the main causes of a variety of cutaneous disorders, including photoaging and skin cancer. Its UVB component (280-315nm) leads to oxidative stress and causes inflammation, DNA damage, p53 induction and lipid and protein oxidation. Recently, an increase in the use of plant polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has emerged to protect human skin against the deleterious effects of sunlight.OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the protective effects of lemon balm extract (LBE) (Melissa Officinalis, L) and its main phenolic compound rosmarinic acid (RA) against UVB-induced damage in human keratinocytes.METHODS: The LBE composition was determined by HPLC analysis coupled to photodiode array detector and ion trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-MS/MS). Cell survival, ROS generation and DNA damage were determined upon UVB irradiation in the presence of LBE. The melanogenic capacity of LBE was also determined.RESULTS: RA and salvianolic acid derivatives were the major compounds, but caffeic acid and luteolin glucuronide were also found in LBE. LBE and RA significantly increased the survival of human keratinocytes upon UVB radiation, but LBE showed a stronger effect. LBE significantly decreased UVB-induced intracellular ROS production. Moreover, LBE reduced UV-induced DNA damage and the DNA damage response (DDR), which were measured as DNA strand breaks in the comet assay and histone H2AX activation, respectively. Finally, LBE promoted melanogenesis in the cell model.CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that LBE may be considered as a candidate for the development of oral/topical photoprotective ingredients against UVB-induced skin damage.

J Dermatol Sci. 2016 Aug 4. Epub 2016 Aug 4. PMID: 27528586

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Pomegranate juice is able to attenuate the damage provoked by cigarette smoke on cultured human alveolar macrophages.


Cigarette smoke (CS) accounts for the outcome of several pathologies, even including lung cancer, cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Under healthy conditions, lung immune system becomes tolerant in response to various external stimuli. CS exposure alters the pulmonary immune equilibrium, thus leading to a condition of hyper activation of the local innate and adaptive immunity. COPD is one of the major complications of chronic CS exposure where a pro-inflammatory profile of the pulmonary and systemic immunity is predominant. In this review, alternative treatments with natural products to mitigate CS-mediated pulmonary inflammation are proposed. In particular, polyphenols, a class of natural compounds largely present in fruits and vegetables, have been shown to act as anti-inflammatory agents. Accordingly, recent experimental and clinical evidences support polyphenol-mediated potential health benefits in smokers. For instance, pomegranate juice is able to attenuate the damage provoked by CS on cultured human alveolar macrophages. In addition, maqui beery extract has been proven to normalize H2O2 and interleukin-6 levels in exhaled breath condensate in healthy smokers. However, some limitations of alternative treatments are represented by a better knowledge of the mechanism(s) of action exerted by polyphenols and by the lack of animal models of COPD. In any case, the potential targets of polyphenols in the course of COPD will be outlined with special reference to the activation of T regulatory cells as well as to the inhibition of the polymorphonuclear cell and monocyte respiratory burst and of the NF-kB pathway, respectively.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2016 Sep 27. Epub 2016 Aug 27. PMID: 27697073

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The apple polyphenol phloretin inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth.


Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are required for glucose uptake in malignant cells, and they can be used as molecular targets for cancer therapy. An RT-PCR analysis was performed to investigate the mRNA levels of 14 subtypes of GLUTs in human colorectal cancer (COLO 205 and HT-29) and normal (FHC) cells. RT-PCR (n = 27) was used to assess the differences in paired tissue samples (tumor vs normal) isolated from colorectal cancer patients. GLUT2 was detected in all tested cells. The average GLUT2 mRNA level in 12 of 27 (44.4%) cases was 2.4-fold higher in tumor compared to normal tissues (*, p = 0.027). Higher GLUT2 mRNA expression was preferentially detected in advanced-stage tumors (stage 0 vs 3 = 16.38-fold, 95% CI = 9.22-26.54-fold; *, p = 0.029). The apple polyphenol phloretin (Ph) and siRNA methods were used to inhibit GLUT2 protein expression. Ph (0-100μM, for 24 h) induced COLO 205 cell growth cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner, which was confirmed by pretreatment of the cells with a p53-specific dominant negative expression vector. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF6), which was previously reported to be a transcription factor that activatesGLUT2 and p53, was also induced by Ph (0-100 μM, for 24 h). The antitumor effect of Ph (25 mg/kg or DMSO twice a week for 6 weeks) was demonstrated in vivo using BALB/c nude mice bearing COLO 205 tumor xenografts. In conclusion, targeting GLUT2 could potentially suppress colorectal tumor cell invasiveness.

J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Sep 14 ;64(36):6826-37. Epub 2016 Sep 2. PMID: 27538679

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Resveratrol markedly decreased the overexpression of miR-196b/miR-1290 and elevated IGFBP3 expression in the ALL cell lines.


MicroRNAs play critical roles in the progression of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Previous studies have indicated that miR-196b and miR-1290 play critical roles in T-cell ALL (T-ALL) and B-cell ALL (B-ALL), respectively. Resveratrol, a natural edible polyphenolic phytoalexin, possesses certain anticancer activities. Nevertheless, the mechanism involved in the regulation of ALL by resveratrol is still poorly understood. The present study aimed to reveal the potential mechanism underlying the antitumor effect of resveratrol in ALL focusing on miRNAs. Research indicates that insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) plays a critical role in the aetiology of ALL. In the present study, we first demonstrated that the expression of IGFBP3 was decreased in ALL patients. We further identified that miR-196b and miR-1290 were overexpressed in T-ALL TALL-104 and B-ALL SUP-B15 cell lines, respectively. Moreover, resveratrol markedly decreased the overexpression of miR-196b/miR-1290 and elevated IGFBP3 expression in the ALL cell lines. As an miR-196b/miR-1290 inhibitor, resveratrol was further demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on ALL cells including antiproliferation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosisand inhibition of migration. Dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-196b/miR-1290 directly bound to the 3'-untranslated (3'-UTR) region of IGFBP3 mRNA. Moreover, we observed that IGFBP3 short interfering RNA reversed the antitumor activity of resveratrol against ALL cells. Taken together,the present study provides evidence that resveratrol targets miR-196b and miR-1290 for its antitumor activity in T-ALL and B-ALL, respectively. The present study also confirms that both miR‑196b and miR-1290 target the IGFBP3 3'-UTR and are potential therapeutic targets for ALL.

Oncol Rep. 2016 Dec 15. Epub 2016 Dec 15. PMID: 28000876

40
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Inhibition of oncoprotein cell division cycle 20 by curcumin could be useful for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.


Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human tumors in the United States. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, has been reported to exert its antitumor activity in pancreatic cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of curcumin-mediated tumor suppressive function have not been fully elucidated. In the current study, we explore whether curcumin exhibits its anti-cancer function through inhibition of oncoprotein cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) in pancreatic cancer cells. We found that curcumin inhibited cell growth, enhanced apoptosis, induced cell cycle arrest and retarded cell invasion in pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that curcumin significantly inhibited the expression of Cdc20 in pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that overexpression of Cdc20 enhanced cell proliferation and invasion, and abrogated the cytotoxic effects induced by curcumin in pancreatic cancer cells. Consistently, downregulation of Cdc20 promoted curcumin-mediated anti-tumor activity. Therefore, our findings indicated that inhibition of Cdc20 by curcumin could be useful for the treatment of pancreatic cancer patients.

Nutrients. 2017 Feb 4 ;9(2). Epub 2017 Feb 4. PMID: 28165402

41
[+]

M. nigra may be a novel candidate for the development of new natural product based therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.


Background: Morus nigra L. belongs to the family Moraceae and is frequently used in traditional medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of various extracts of different Morus species, but studies involving the in vitro cytotoxic effect of M. nigra extract are very limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of M. nigra (DEM) and to investigate, for the first time, the probable cytotoxic effect in human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) cells together with the mechanism involved. Methods: Total polyphenolic contents (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and phenolic compounds of DEM were evaluated using spectrophotometric procedures and HPLC. The cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells was revealed using the MTT assay. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells were then investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle using flow cytometry, while caspase activity was investigated using luminometric analysis. Results: TPC and FRAP values were 20.7 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalents and 48.8 ± 1.6 mg trolox equivalents per g sample, respectively. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid were the major phenolic compounds detected at HPLC analysis. DEM arrested the cell cycle of PC-3 cells at the G1 phase, induced apoptosis via increased caspase activity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions: Our results indicate that M. nigra may be a novel candidate for the development of new natural product based therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

Saudi Pharm J. 2017 Feb ;25(2):241-248. Epub 2016 Jun 20. PMID: 28344475

42
[+]

Oral administration of apple procyanidins inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.


Various epidemiologic and experimental in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that polyphenols derived from fruits, vegetables and beverages might decrease the risk of developing lifestyle diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders and cancer. Apples are a major dietary source of polyphenols. Here we investigated the antitumor activity of apple polyphenols (APs) and procyanidins, namely condensed tannins, both in vitro and in vivo studies. APs and procyanidins inhibited the growth of transplanted B16 mouse melanoma cells and BALB-MC.E12 mouse mammary tumor cells, and increased the survival rate of the host mice-transplanted B16 cells. Among the APs, the apple procyanidins specifically, rather than other polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin, phloridzin and procyanidin B2, had a major effect on cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro. The apple procyanidins increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 within the tumor cells. In addition, we separated eight procyanidin fractions according to the degree of polymerization using normal-phase chromatography, and detected strong anti-tumor activity in the procyanidin pentamer and higher degree fractions. Our results indicate that the oral administration of apple procyanidins inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

Carcinogenesis. 2008 Mar ;29(3):585-93. Epub 2007 Sep 7. PMID: 17827407

43
[+]

Kaempferol might act as a therapeutic potential candidate for cancer metastasis.


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been regarded as major critical molecules assisting tumor cells during metastasis, for excessive ECM (ECM) degradation, and cancer cell invasion. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo assays were employed to examine the inhibitory effects of kaempferol, a natural polyphenol of flavonoid family, on tumor metastasis. Data showed that kaempferol could inhibit adhesion, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. Moreover, kaempferol led to the reduced activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which were detected by gelatin zymography, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis, respectively. Further elucidation of the mechanism revealed that kaempferol treatment inhibited the activation of transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) and MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, kaempferol repressed phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced MMP-9 expression and activity through suppressing the translocation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) and MAPK signaling pathway. Our results also indicated that kaempferol could block the lung metastasis of B16F10 murine melanoma cells as well as the expression of MMP-9 in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrated that kaempferol could inhibit cancer cell invasion through blockingthe PKCδ/MAPK/AP-1 cascade and subsequent MMP-9 expression and its activity. Therefore, kaempferol might act as a therapeutic potential candidate for cancer metastasis.

Biochem Cell Biol. 2015 Feb ;93(1):16-27. Epub 2014 Sep 12. PMID: 25453494

44
[+]

Encapsulation of EGCG in transferrin-bearing vesicles is a promising therapeutic strategy.


AIM: The therapeutic potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol with anticancer properties, is limited by its inability to specifically reach tumors following intravenous administration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a tumor-targeted vesicular formulation of EGCG would suppress the growth of A431 epidermoid carcinoma and B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo.MATERIALS & METHODS: Transferrin-bearing vesicles encapsulating EGCG were administered intravenously to mice bearing subcutaneous A431 and B16-F10 tumors.RESULTS: The intravenous administration of EGCG encapsulated in transferrin-bearing vesicles resulted in tumor suppression in 40% of A431 and B16-F10 tumors. Animal survival was improved by more than 20 days compared with controls.CONCLUSION: Encapsulation of EGCG in transferrin-bearing vesicles is a promising therapeutic strategy.

Nanomedicine (Lond). 2013 Feb ;8(2):181-92. Epub 2012 Aug 14. PMID: 22891867

45
[+]

Combining fisetin and ionizing radiation suppresses the growth of mammalian colorectal cancers.


Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), which belongs to the flavonoid group of polyphenols and is found in a wide range of plants, has been reported to exhibit a number of biological activities in human cancer cells, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, anti-invasive and antiproliferative effects. Although previous in vitro studies have shown that fisetin treatment increases the apoptotic rate and enhances the radiosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells, the in vivo effects of fisetin on tumor growth remain unclear. In the present study a murine xenograft tumor model was employed to investigate the therapeutic effects of fisetin in combination with radiation on CT-26 colon cancer cells and human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. This revealed that intratumoral injection of fisetin significantly suppressed the growth of CT-26 tumors compared with the untreated control group, but had little effect on the growth of HCT116 tumors. However, fisetin in combination with 2-Gy radiation enhanced tumor suppressor activity in murine colon and human colorectal xenograft tumors, as compared with 2-Gy fractionated radiation administered alone for 5 days and fisetin alone. Interestingly, fisetin downregulated the expression of the oncoprotein securin in a p53-independent manner. However, securin-null HCT116 tumors showed only moderate sensitivity to fisetin treatment, and the combination of fisetin and radiation did not significantly suppress securin-null HCT116 tumor growth compared with normal HCT116 tumors. Therefore, the role of securin in mediating the effect of fisetin on colorectal cancer growth warrants further investigation. In conclusion, the results of the current study provide important preclinical data for evaluating the efficacy of fisetin and radiation combination treatment as an adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for human colorectal cancers.

Oncol Lett. 2016 Dec ;12(6):4975-4982. Epub 2016 Nov 2. PMID: 28105204

46
[+]

Coupling to a cancer cell-specific antibody potentiates tumoricidal properties of curcumin.


In vitro studies have shown that curcumin, a polyphenol from the culinary component turmeric, has strong anticancer properties. However, there is no consensus on its therapeutic effect in human. Our earlier experiments involving implanted murine melanoma B16F10 cells in the neck or brain of syngeneic C57BL6 mice showed that tail vein injection of curcumin blocks formation of lesions and tumor in these mice. However, such treatment was ineffective in eliminating established tumors that already occupied≤10% of brain volume. Possible reasons include low solubility and rapid metabolism of curcumin in vivo. To increase its efficacy, we have linked curcumin through a cleavable arm to an antibody (Ab) against the melanoma surface antigen Muc18. The antibody-coupled curcumin was 230-fold more effective in eliminating B16F10 cells in vitro, and in vivo, it rapidly decimated established, B16F10-evoked brain tumors, enabling the rescued mice to live normally far beyond 90 days from implantation of cancer cells. In contrast, mice treated with Muc18 Ab alone died of brain tumor within a month. In B16F10 cells, curcumin-Ab (adduct) treatment caused a dramatic inhibition of NF-kB: a transcription factor that is constitutively activated in cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NF-kB in the B16F10 cells blocked adduct-evoked stimulation of caspase-3/7 activity. Thus, by suppressing NF-kB, the curcumin adduct inhibits other downstream tumor-promoting proteins, thereby eliminating the B16F10 cells. Our study submits a novel yet generally applicable strategy of converting curcumin into a potent anticancer agent and provides a mechanistic framework for its action.

Int J Cancer. 2012 Aug 15 ;131(4):E569-78. Epub 2012 Jan 3. PMID: 21989768

47
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Walnuts significantly inhibit breast cancer cell growth in the mouse experimental model.


Walnuts contain components that may slow cancer growth including omega 3 fatty acids, phytosterols, polyphenols, carotenoids, and melatonin. A pilot study was performed to determine whether consumption of walnuts could affect growth of MDA-MB 231 human breast cancers implanted into nude mice. Tumor cells were injected into nude mice that were consuming an AIN-76A diet slightly modified to contain 10% corn oil. After the tumors reached 3 to 5 mm diameter, the diet of one group of mice was changed to include ground walnuts, equivalent to 56 g (2 oz) per day in humans. The tumor growth rate from Day 10, when tumor sizes began to diverge, until the end of the study of the group that consumed walnuts (2.9 +/- 1.1 mm(3)/day; mean +/- standard error of the mean) was significantly less (P > 0.05, t-test of the growth rates) than that of the group that did not consume walnuts (14.6 +/- 1.3 mm(3)/day). The eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid fractions of the livers of the group that consumed walnuts were significantly higher than that of the group that did not consume walnuts. Tumor cell proliferation was decreased, but apoptosis was not altered due to walnut consumption. Further work is merited to investigate applications to cancer in humans.

Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(5):666-74. PMID: 18791931

48
[+]

Berries may protect against and inhibit esophageal cancers.


For several years, our laboratory has been evaluating the ability of lyophilized (freeze-dried) black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis, BRBs), blackberries (R. fructicosus, BBs), and strawberries (Fragaria ananasia, STRWs) to inhibit carcinogen-induced cancer in the rodent esophagus. To assure "standardized" berry preparations for study, each berry type is of the same cultivar, picked at about the same degree of ripeness, washed and frozen within 2-4 h of the time of picking, and freeze-dried under conditions that preserve the components in the berries. Some of the known chemopreventive agents in berries include vitamins A, C, and E and folic acid; calcium and selenium; beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lutein; polyphenols such as ellagic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and several anthocyanins; and phytosterols such as beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and kaempferol. In initial bioassays, freeze-dried STRW, BRB, and BB powders were mixed into AIN-76A synthetic diet at concentrations of 5% and 10% and fed to Fischer 344 rats before, during, and after treatment with the esophageal carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA). At 25 wk of the bioassay, all three berry types were found to inhibit the number of esophageal tumors (papillomas) in NMBA-treated animals by 24-56% relative to NMBA controls. This inhibition correlated with reductions in the formation of the NMBA-induced O6-methylguanine adduct in esophageal DNA, suggesting that the berries influenced the metabolism of NMBA leading to reduced DNA damage. Studies are ongoing to determine the mechanisms by which berries influence NMBA metabolism and DNA adduct formation. BRBs and STRWs were also tested in a postinitiation scheme and were found to inhibit NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis by 31-64% when administered in the diet following treatment of the animals with NMBA. Berries, therefore, inhibit tumor promotion and progression events as well as tumor initiation. In vivo mechanistic studies with BRBs indicate that they reduce the growth rate of premalignant esophageal cells, in part, through down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 leading to reduced prostaglandin production and of inducible nitric oxide synthase leading to reduced nitrate/nitrite levels in the esophagus. Based upon the preclinical data on rodents, we have initiated prevention trials in humans to determine if berries might exhibit chemopreventive effects in the esophagus.

Nutr Cancer. 2006;54(1):33-46. PMID: 16800771

49
[+]

EGCG, a green tea polyphenol, significantly interferes with androgen-independent prostate cancer in vivo.


Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major and most potent polyphenol compound of green tea that has been shown to have anticancer effects against various types of cancers. In this study, in addition to the EGCG compound, a synthetic derivative, the peracetate of EGCG (EGCG-P), was used to investigate the inhibitory effects on growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer in vivo. The advantage of EGCG-P is that it may act as a prodrug, leading to higher bioavailability than EGCG itself. The aim of our study was to compare the differences between EGCG and EGCG-P on their inhibitory effect on androgen-independent prostate cancer, CWR22R, xenograft model in nude mice. The mice were administrated daily with solvent dimethyl sulfoxide, EGCG, and EGCG-P separately through intraperitoneal injection for 20 days. Tumor volume and body weight of nude mice were recorded daily. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were also measured before and after the treatment. The effects of both EGCG and EGCG-P on tumor cell proliferation were assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) method using antibodies against Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The apoptotic effect was evaluated by IHC against B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma-2 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay by in situ apoptosis detection kit. Moreover, the potential suppression of angiogenesis by EGCG and EGCG-P on prostate cancer was examined by IHC against CD31. Our results revealed that treatment of EGCG and EGCG-P compounds suppressed the growth of CWR22R xenografts without causing any detectable side effects in nude mice. The suppression of growth of the tumor was correlated with the decrease of serum PSA level together with the reduction in tumor angiogenesis and an increase in apoptosis on prostate cancer cells. The results showed that treatment of EGCG and EGCG-P inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis while promoting apoptosis of the prostate cancer cells in vivo. Our results suggest that EGCG-P may be a more stable and useful compound for increasing the therapeutic anticancer effects in androgen-independent prostate cancer.  

Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(4):483-91. PMID: 18584482

50
[+]

Resveratrol may improve Multiple Sclerosis by causing apoptosis in activated T cells.


 Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound found in plant products, including red grapes, exhibits anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Using an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated the use of resveratrol for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. We observed that resveratrol treatment decreased the clinical symptoms and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced mice. Furthermore, we observed significant apoptosis in inflammatory cells in spinal cord of EAE-induced mice treated with resveratrol compared with the control mice. Resveratrol administration also led to significant down-regulation of certain cytokines and chemokines in EAE-induced mice including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-9, IL-12, IL-17, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and Eotaxin. In vitro studies on the mechanism of action revealed that resveratrol triggered high levels of apoptosis in activated T cells and to a lesser extent in unactivated T cells. Moreover, resveratrol-induced apoptosis was mediated through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) and correlated with up-regulation of AhR, Fas, and FasL expression. In addition, resveratrol-induced apoptosis in primary T cells correlated with cleavage of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and release of cytochrome c. Data from the present study demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of resveratrol to trigger apoptosis in activated T cells and its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including, MS.

Mol Pharmacol.2007 Dec;72(6):1508-21. Epub 2007 Sep 14. PMID: 17872969

51
[+]

Litchi fruit appears to have anticancer activity against estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative human breast cancers.


 Litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract contains significant amounts of polyphenolic compounds and exhibits powerful antioxidative activity against fat oxidation in vitro. The purpose of this study is to confirm the anticancer activity of LFP extract on human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, and to elucidate the mechanism of its activity. Human breast cancer cells were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, colony formation inhibition, BrdU incorporation, and gene expression profiling after treatment with LFP extract. Seven nude mice bearing human breast infiltrating duct carcinoma orthotopically were tested for its anticancer activity and expression of caspase-3 in vivo by oral administration of 0.3% (0.3 mg/ml) of LFP water-soluble crude ethanolic extract (CEE) for 10 weeks. LFP extract demonstrated a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth (IC(50) = 80 microg/ml), and it significantly inhibited colony formation and BrdU incorporation of human breast cancer cells. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis identified 41(1.22%) up-regulated and 129 (3.84%) down-regulated genes after LFP water-soluble CEE treatment; the predominantly up-regulated genes were involved in various biological functions including cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, and extracellular matrix/adhesion molecules; and down-regulated genes were mainly associated with adhesion, invasion, and malignancy of cancer cells. A 40.70% tumor mass volume reduction and significant increase of casepase-3 protein expression were observed in vivo experiment. The findings in this study suggested that LFP extract might have potential anticancer activity on both ER positive and negative breast cancers, which could be attributed, in part, to its DNA damage effect, proliferating inhibition and apoptosis induction of cancer cells through up-regulation and down-regulation of multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, motility and invasiveness of cancer cells; ADP-ribosyltransferase (NAD+; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase)-like 1 (ADPRTL1), Cytochrome P450, subfamily I (CYP1A1) and Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR) might be the main molecular targets at which LFP water-soluble CEE acted.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.2006 Sep 1;215(2):168-78. Epub 2006 Mar 23 PMID: 16563451

52
[+]

Curcumin attenuates aluminum-induced functional neurotoxicity in rats.


Curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and well known as a multi-functional drug with antioxidative, anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory activities. Curcumin's antiaging and neuroprotective potential is widely reported. In the present study, effect of curcumin treatment dose 30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) was investigated against aluminium neurotoxicity in young and old animals. Direct and indirect intakes of aluminium have been reported to be involved in the etiology of several neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Long term Al was administered through drinking water at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 6 months in both young (4 months) and old (18 months) male Wistar rats. Result obtained demonstrates that curcumin treatment attenuates the Al-induced alterations at biochemical, behavioral and ultrastructural levels which was well reflected in the electrophysiological recordings. Our results indicate that curcumin's ability to bind redox active metals and cross the blood-brain barrier could be playing crucial role in preventing against Al-induced neurotoxicity.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Jul;93(1):31-9. Epub 2009 Apr 17. PMID: 19376155

53
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Kaempferol may have a therapeutic role in preventing and/or treating autoimmune diseases.


IL-4 is involved in several human diseases including allergies, autoimmunity, and cancer. Its effects are mainly mediated through the transcription factor STAT6. Therefore, investigation of compounds that regulate STAT6 activation is of great interest for these diseases. Natural polyphenols are compounds reported to have therapeutic properties in diseases involving IL-4 and STAT6. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these compounds in the activation of this transcription factor. We found that in hemopoietic cells from human and mouse origin, some flavonoids were able to inhibit the activation of STAT6 by IL-4. To identify molecular mechanisms, we focused on kaempferol, the compound that showed the greatest inhibitory effect with the lowest cell toxicity. Treatment of cells with kaempferol did not affect activation of Src kinase by IL-4 but did prevent the phosphorylation of JAK1 and JAK3. Further enzymatic analysis demonstrated that kaempferol blocked the in vitro phosphorylation activity of JAK3 without affecting JAK1, suggesting that it specifically targeted JAK3 activity. Accordingly, kaempferol had no effect on STAT6 activation in nonhemopoietic cell lines lacking JAK3, supporting its selective inhibition of IL-4 responses through type I receptors expressing JAK3 but not type II lacking this kinase. The inhibitory effect of kaempferol was also observed in IL-2 but not IL-3-mediated responses and correlated with the inhibition of MLC proliferation. These findings reveal the potential use of kaempferol as a tool for selectively controlling cell responses to IL-4 and, in general, JAK3-dependent responses.

J Immunol. 2007 Sep 15;179(6):3881-7. PMID: 17785825

54
[+]

Resveratrol may have a therapeutic role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.


Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic stilbene derivative found in several human diet components that possess important and wide-ranging effects in biological systems including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardio-protective, and anti-ageing actions and beneficial properties against metabolic diseases. This study addresses the effects of long-term administration of resveratrol on several functional alterations arising from the metabolic syndrome experimental model of obese Zucker rats, and the possible mechanisms involved. The high plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, insulin and leptin found in obese Zucker rats were reduced in obese rats that received resveratrol. Furthermore, the elevated hepatic lipid content was significantly lower in obese rats treated with resveratrol, an effect which was related to the increased phosphorylation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the liver of these animals. Resveratrol treatment also improved the inflammatory status peculiar to this model, as it increased the concentration of adiponectin and lowered tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese Zucker rats. Moreover, chronic intake of resveratrol enhanced VAT eNOS expression among obese Zucker rats. These effects parallel the activation of AMPK and inhibition by phosphorylation of ACC in this tissue. The raised systolic blood pressure and reduced aortic eNOS expression found in obese Zucker rats were significantly improved in the resveratrol-treated obese rats. In conclusion, resveratrol improved dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension in obese Zucker rats, and produced anti-inflammatory effects in VAT, effects that seem to be mediated by AMPK activation.

Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Mar 15;77(6):1053-63. Epub 2008 Dec 3. PMID: 19100718

55
[+]

EGCG, a green tea polyphenol, inhibits growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of pancreatic cancer in vivo.


We have shown that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells. However, the preclinical potential of EGCG in a suitable mouse model has not been examined. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which EGCG inhibited growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of human pancreatic cancer cells in a xenograft model system. EGCG inhibited viability, capillary tube formation and migration of HUVEC, and these effects were further enhanced in the presence of an ERK inhibitor. In vivo, AsPC-1 xenografted tumors treated with EGCG showed significant reduction in volume, proliferation (Ki-67 and PCNA staining), angiogenesis (vWF, VEGF and CD31) and metastasis (MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and MMP-12) and induction in apoptosis (TUNEL), caspase-3 activity and growth arrest (p21/WAF1). EGCG also inhibited circulating endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) positive endothelial cells derived from xenografted mice. Tumor samples from EGCG treated mice showed significantly reduced ERK activity, and enhanced p38 and JNK activities. Overall, our data suggest that EGCG inhibits pancreatic cancer growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis, and thus could be used for the management of pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment.

Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:440-52. PMID: 17981559

56
[+]

Resveratrol inhibits chemically induced liver cancer in an animal model.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and lethal diseases. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grape skins, peanuts, berries and red wine, has been shown to possess potent growth inhibitory effects against various human cancer cells. Although resveratrol has been found to exhibit chemopreventive actions in experimentally induced skin, breast, colon and esophagus rodent tumors, chemopreventive potential of this dietary constituent has not been explored well against experimental liver cancer. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of resveratrol using a two-stage model of rat hepatocarcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Initiation was performed by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA, 200 mg/kg), followed by promotion with phenobarbital (0.05%) in drinking water. The rats had free access to food supplemented with resveratrol equivalent to 50, 100 or 300 mg/kg body weight/day. Resveratrol treatment was started 4 weeks prior to the initiation and continued for 20 weeks. Resveratrol dose-dependently reduced the incidence, total number and multiplicity of visible hepatocyte nodules. Mean nodular volume and nodular volume as percentage of liver volume were also inhibited upon resveratrol treatment. Histopathological examination of liver tissue confirmed the protective effect of resveratrol. Immunohistochemical detection of cell proliferation and assay of apoptosis indicated a decrease in cell proliferation and increase of apoptotic cells in the livers of resveratrol-supplemented rats. Resveratrol also induced the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, reduced anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, with a concurrent increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio with respect to DENA control. The present study provides evidence, for the first time, that resveratrol exerts a significant chemopreventive effect on DENA-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis through inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Resveratrol-induced apoptogenic signal during rat liver carcinogenesis may be mediated through the downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax expression. Due to a favorable toxicity profile, resveratrol can potentially be developed as a chemopreventive drug against human HCC.

Chem Biol Interact. 2009 May 15;179(2-3):131-44. Epub 2008 Nov 27. PMID: 19073162

57
[+]

Vitamin D3 and rosemary have a cooperative antitumor effect in a mouse model of myeloid leukemia.


1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D(3)) is a powerful differentiation agent, which has potential for treatment of myeloid leukemias and other types of cancer, but the calcemia produced by pharmacologically active doses precludes the use of this agent in the clinic. We have shown that carnosic acid, the major rosemary polyphenol, enhances the differentiating and antiproliferative effects of low concentrations of 1,25D(3) in human myeloid leukemia cell lines (HL60, U937). Here we translated these findings to in vivo conditions using a syngeneic mouse leukemia tumor model. To this end, we first demonstrated that as in HL60 cells, differentiation of WEHI-3B D(-) murine myelomonocytic leukemia cells induced by 1 nM 1,25D(3) or its low-calcemic analog, 1,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-5,6-trans-cholecalciferol (Ro25-4020), can be synergistically potentiated by carnosic acid (10 microM) or the carnosic acid-rich ethanolic extract of rosemary leaves. This effect was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in G0 + G1 phase and a marked inhibition of cell growth. In the in vivo studies, i.p. injections of 2 microg Ro25-4020 in Balb/c mice bearing WEHI-3B D(-) tumors produced a significant delay in tumor appearance and reduction in tumor size, without significant toxicity. Another analog, 1,25-dihydroxy-16,23Z-diene-20-epi-26,27-hexafluoro-19-nor-cholecalciferol (Ro26-3884) administered at the same dose was less effective than Ro25-4020 and profoundly toxic. Importantly, combined treatment with 1% dry rosemary extract (mixed with food) and 1 microg Ro25-4020 resulted in a strong cooperative antitumor effect, without inducing hypercalcemia. These results indicate for the first time that a plant polyphenolic preparation and a vitamin D derivative can cooperate not only in inducing leukemia cell differentiation in vitro, but also in the antileukemic activity in vivo. These data may suggest novel protocols for chemoprevention or differentiation therapy of myeloid leukemia.

Int J Cancer. 2006 Jun 15;118(12):3012-21. PMID: 16395705

58
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Mangiferin may be of value in the prevention of benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis.


Antioxidants are one of the key players in tumourigenesis, and several natural and synthetic antioxidants have been shown to have anticancer effects. In the present investigation, the efficacy of mangiferin on the antioxidant status of benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice was assessed. The animals were divided into five groups. The animals in groups I and V were normal control and mangiferin control, respectively. Groups II, III and IV were administered with benzo(a)pyrene (50 mg/kg body weight, orally) for 4 weeks (twice a week) to induced lung carcinogenesis. Starting 1 week prior to benzo(a)pyrene administration, group III animals were treated with mangiferin (100 mg/kg body weight) in the diet for 18 weeks; 12 weeks after benzo(a)pyrene administration, group III animals were treated with mangiferin that continued until the end of the experiment period (18 weeks). At the end of the experiment period, the reactive oxygen species, glutathione and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed in both lung and liver tissues. The levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, vitamin E and vitamin C were decreased in group II animals. However, in the mangiferin + benzo(a)pyrene-treated groups III and IV, the levels of GSH and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in both lung and liver were improved when compared with benzo(a)pyrene-induced group II animals. In addition, the finding that mangiferin decreased reactive oxygen species levels and enhanced antioxidant status suggests that this polyphenol might also be of value in the prevention of benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis.

Nutrition. 2003 Sep;19(9):794-9. PMID: 18816296

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Green tea polyphenols and its constituent EGCG inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.


Tea [Camellia sinensis (Theaceae)] intake is second only to water in terms of worldwide popularity as a beverage. The Green tea polyphenols have been shown to have a protective effect in prostate cancer in various pre-clinical animal models and has been reported to be effective in several other cancer types as well. An inverse association between the risk of breast cancer and the intake of green tea has also been reported in Asian Americans. Several epidemiological studies have shown that breast cancer progression is delayed in the Asian population that consumes green tea on regular basis. In this study, we report the effectiveness of green tea polyphenols (GTP) and its constituent Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) in tumor regression using both in-vitro cell culture models and in vivo athymic nude mice models of breast cancer. The anti-proliferative effect of GTP and EGCG on the growth of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell was studied using a tetrazolium dye-based (MTT) assay. Both GTP and EGCG treatment had the ability to arrest the cell cycle at G1 phase as assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of Cyclin D, Cyclin E, CDK 4, CDK 1 and PCNA were down regulated over the time in GTP and EGCG treated experimental group, compared to the untreated control group as evaluated by western blot analysis for cell cycle proteins, which corroborated the G1 block. Nude mice inoculated with human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and treated with GTP and EGCG were effective in delaying the tumor incidence as well as reducing the tumor burden when compared to the water fed and similarly handled control. GTP and EGCG treatment were also found to induce apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation when the tumor tissue sections were examined by immunohistochemistry. Our results suggest that GTP and EGCG treatment inhibits proliferation and induce apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells in-vitro and in-vivo. All together, these data sustain our contention that GTP and EGCG have anti-tumor properties.

Cancer Lett. 2007 Jan 8;245(1-2):232-41. Epub 2006 Mar 6. PMID: 16519995

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Green tea polyphenol and EGCG induce programmed cell death and inhibit invasion in human breast cancer cells.


Currently, there is no effective therapy for estrogen independent breast cancer. MDA-MB-231 is an estrogen receptor negative highly invasive human breast cancer cell line and has been used as a relevant model system to evaluate drugs with chemopreventive potential against highly invasive breast cancer phenotypes. Epidemiological studies though inconclusive have shown that consumption of Green Tea Polyphenols (GTP) reduces the incidence and progression of breast cancer. Green tea is an important source of antioxidants that may be useful for chemoprevention of cancer. Recently published preclinical study from our lab suggested that GTP and EGCG treatment inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of MDA-MB-231. In this study, we have evaluated apoptotic and anti-invasive activity of green tea polyphenols (GTP) and its principal constituent Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. In in vitro human breast cancer model, EGCG and GTP induced apoptosis and significantly decreased invasion of breast cancer cells. Western blotting of MDA-MB-231 cell lysates from EGCG and GTP treated and untreated control revealed an increase in bax, reduction in bcl2 and PARP cleavage. Quantitative fluorescence labeling resulted in a 24-28% reduction in invasion through matrigel by EGCG and 15-23% reduction by GTP in a dose dependent manner. Focussed microarray analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and zymogram analysis revealed inhibition of MMP-9 expression by polyphenol treatment. Furthermore, AKT was found to be inhibited both at the RNA and protein level by polyphenol treatment. Moreover EGCG and GTP decreased AKT phosphorylation as found out by Western blotting for Phospho-AKT (Ser-473). beta-catenin level was found to be decreased both in cytoplasm and nucleus. For the first time we report the connection of beta-catenin and AKT modulation by GTP and EGCG as a possible mechanism for the induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and also inhibition in their invasive capacity.

Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Dec;6(12):1938-43. Epub 2007 Sep 1. PMID: 18059161

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Apples may exert their colon cancer protective effects through favorably altering gene patterns resulting in protection of cells against toxicological insults.


Apples contain significant amounts of flavonoids that are potentially cancer risk reducing by acting antioxidative or antiproliferative and by favorably modulating gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether polyphenols from apples modulate expression of genes related to colon cancer prevention in preneoplastic cells derived from colon adenoma (LT97). For this, LT97 cells were treated with effective concentrations of apple extracts (AEs). RNA was isolated and used for synthesis and labeling of cDNA that was hybridized to cDNA-arrays. Gene expression studies were performed using a commercial cDNA-array from Superarray that contains a limited number of genes (96 genes) related to drug metabolism, and a custom-made cDNA microarray that contains a higher number of genes (300 genes, including some genes from Superarray) related to mechanisms of carcinogenesis or chemoprevention. Real-time PCR and enzyme activity assays were additionally performed to confirm selected array results. Treatment of cells with AE resulted in 30 and 46 genes expressed over cut-off values (>or=1.5- or

Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 15;122(12):2647-55. PMID: 18351577

62
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EGCG sensitizes breast cancer cells to paclitaxel in a mouse model of breast carcinoma.


ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Paclitaxel (Taxol(R)) is a microtubule-targeted agent that is widely used for cancer treatment. However, resistance to paclitaxel is frequently encountered in the clinic. There is increasing interest in identifying compounds that may increase the sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we investigated whether green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can sensitize breast carcinoma to paclitaxel in vivo. METHODS: Breast cancer cells were treated with or without EGCG and paclitaxel followed by detection of cell survival and apoptosis. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression were detected by Western blotting. For in vivo study, 4T1 breast cancer cells were inoculated into Balb/c mice to establish a syngenic transplantation model. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with or without EGCG (30mg/kg, i.p.) and paclitaxel (10mg/kg, i.p.). Tumor growth was monitored. Apoptosis in tumor tissues was detected. Cell lysates from tumors were subjected to Western blot analysis of GRP78 expression and JNK phosphorylation. RESULTS: EGCG synergistically sensitized breast cancer cells to paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo. EGCG in combination with paclitaxel significantly induced 4T1 cells apoptosis compared with each single treatment When tumor-bearing mice were treated with paclitaxel in combination with EGCG, tumor growth was significantly inhibited, whereas the single-agent activity for paclitaxel or EGCG was poor. EGCG overcame paclitaxel -induced GRP78 expression and potentiated paclitaxel -induced JNK phosphorylation in 4T1 cells both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: EGCG may be used as a sensitizer to enhance the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel.

Breast Cancer Res. 2010 Jan 15;12(1):R8. Epub 2010 Jan 15. PMID: 20078855

63
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Green tea has a growth inhibitory and antimetastatic effect on metastasis-specific mouse mammary cancer.


PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females. Dietary habits may have a role in breast cancer risk and prevention as well. Here, we examined the effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on growth and metastasis of highly metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in vitro and in vivo systems. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 4T1 cells were treated with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and the effect was determined on cellular proliferation, induction of apoptosis, proapoptosis, and antiapoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 family, and caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation following 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. Anticarcinogenic and antimetastatic effect of GTP in 4T1 cells was assessed in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. RESULTS: Treatment of 4T1 cells with EGCG resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manner. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with decrease in the protein expression of Bcl-2 concomitantly increase in Bax, cytochrome c release, Apaf-1, and cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP proteins. Treatment of EGCG-rich GTP in drinking water to 4T1 cells bearing BALB/c mice resulted in reduction of tumor growth accompanied with increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, reduction in proliferating cell nuclear antigen and activation of caspase 3 in tumors. Metastasis of tumor cells to lungs was inhibited and survival period of animals was increased after green tea treatment. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that GTP have the ability to prevent the development of breast cancer and its metastasis; however, further in vivo studies are required to identify the molecular targets.

Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Mar 1;11(5):1918-27. PMID: 15756018

64
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Curcumin inhibits bladder tumor growth in a mouse model.


Cigarette smoking (CS) is the main risk factor for bladder cancer development. There are more than 100 carcinogens present in cigarette smoke. Among the potential mediators of CS-induced alterations is nuclear factor-kappa (NF-kappaB), which is responsible for the transcription of genes related to cell transformation, tumor promotion, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Curcumin is a polyphenol compound derived from Curcuma longa that suppress cellular transformation, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis by down regulating NF-kappaB and its regulated genes. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of curcumin in bladder urothelial carcinoma. We studied the effects of curcumin in vitro and in vivo using the orthotropic syngeneic bladder tumor animal model MB49. Curcumin promotes apoptosis of bladder tumor cells in vitro. In vivo tumors of animals treated with curcumin were significantly smaller as compared to controls. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated a decrease in the expression of Cox-2 by 8% and Cyclin D1 by 13% in the animals treated with curcumin; both genes regulated by NF-kappaB and related to cell proliferation. In this study, we showed that curcumin acts in bladder urothelial cancer, possibly dowregulating NF-kappaB-related genes, and could be an option in the treatment of urothelial neoplasms. The results of our study suggest that further research is warranted to confirm our findings.

Int Braz J Urol. 2009 Sep-Oct;35(5):599-606; discussion 606-7. PMID: 19860939

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Milk thistle sprouts have significant antioxidant value which increases with light exposure.


The potential of wild plants in Israel as sources of edible sprouts has not been investigated until now. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world; its young fleshy stems are traditionally eaten by the local Arab sector in Israel, and its sprouts are rich in antioxidants and have been used as a traditional medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The active extract of milk thistle, silymarin, is a mixture of flavonolignans and is a strong antioxidant that has been proved to promote liver cell regeneration, to reduce blood cholesterol and to help prevent cancer. The present objective was to investigate the potential of milk thistle as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants. We found that seed germination within 3-4 days was high (96%, except for striated seeds). Exposure to light significantly reduced sprout growth and significantly increased the polyphenol content and antioxidative capacity. The polyphenol content was 30% higher in seeds originating from purple inflorescences than in those from white ones. We thus found milk thistle to be a good candidate source of healthy edible sprouts.

Br J Cancer. 2005 Sep 5;93(5):590-6. PMID: 17852500

66
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Pretreatment with black tea polyphenols positively modulates xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in an experimental oral carcinogenesis model.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of the black tea polyphenols Polyphenon-B and BTF-35 during the preinitiation phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Hamsters were divided into six groups. Animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing Polyphenon-B and BTF-35, respectively, 4 weeks before carcinogen administration when they were 6 weeks of age and continued until the final exposure to carcinogen. At 10 weeks of age, animals in groups 1, 2, and 3 were painted with 0.5% DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given Polyphenon-B and BTF-35 alone, respectively, as in groups 2 and 3. Animals in group 6 served as control. All the animals were sacrificed after an experimental period of 18 weeks. Phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in the buccal pouch and liver were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. Hamsters painted with DMBA showed increased expression of 8-OH-dG and enhanced activities of phase I (CYP450; total as well as CYP1A1, 1A2, and 2B isoforms and cytochrome b5) and phase II (GST and quinone reductase) xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes with increased immunohistochemical expression of CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 isoforms in the buccal pouch. This was accompanied by increased phase I and decreased phase II enzyme activities in the liver. Administration of Polyphenon-B and BTF-35 significantly decreased tumor incidence, oxidative DNA damage, phase I enzyme activities as well as expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 isoforms, while enhancing phase II enzyme activities in the buccal pouch and liver. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. Furthermore, the greater efficacy of BTF-35 in chemoprevention of HBP carcinomas via inhibition of oxidative DNA damage and modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes may have a major impact in human oral cancer prevention.

Oncol Res. 2008;17(2):75-85. PMID: 18543609

67
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Rutin inhibits leukemia in mice and promotes an immune response.


Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in various foods of plants. Rutin, one of the flavonoids, had been showed induced apoptosis in cancer cells. There is no available information to address rutin affects murine leukemia cells in vivo. In the present study, we are focused on the in vivo effects of rutin on leukemia WEHI-3 cells. The effects of rutin on WEHI-3 in BALB/c mice in vivo were also examined and the results indicated that rutin decreased the percentage of Mac-3 marker, indicating that the differentiation of the precursor of macrophage and T cells was inhibited. The weights of liver and spleen were decreased from rutin-treated groups compared to the control groups and the results indicated that rutin decreased the weight of these organs. One of the major characteristic of WEHI-3 leukemia is the enlarged spleen in murine after i.p. injection of WEHI-3 cells. After the pathological examination, the function of rutin was observed in the liver and spleen in the mice previously injected with WEHI-3 cells. Rutin promoted the activity of macrophage phagocytosis in cells which isolated from peritoneal (i.p.). Taken together, rutin can affect WEHI-3 cells in vivo.

Leuk Res. 2009 Jun;33(6):823-8. Epub 2008 Nov 17. PMID: 19010542

68
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Oral exposure to bisphenol a increases chemically-induced mammary cancer in rats.


BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, including infant formula bottles. OBJECTIVES: Based on the reported endocrine disruptor activity of this polyphenol, we hypothesized that exposure to BPA early in life would elicit developmental changes in the mammary tissue and cause a predisposition for mammary cancer. METHODS: We exposed neonatal/prepubertal rats to BPA via lactation from nursing dams treated orally with 0, 25, and 250 mug BPA/kg body weight/day. For tumorigenesis studies, female offspring were exposed to 30 mg dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)/kg body weight at 50 days of age. RESULTS: The combination of DMBA treatment with lactational exposure to BPA demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in mammary tumor multiplicity and reduced tumor latency compared with controls. In the absence of DMBA treatment, lactational BPA exposure resulted in increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis at 50 but not 21 days postpartum (shortly after last BPA treatment). Using Western blot analysis, we determined that steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) 1-3, Akt, phosphorylated Akt, progesterone receptor A (PR-A), and erbB3 proteins were significantly up-regulated at 50 days of age. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here provide the first evidence that maternal exposure to BPA during lactation increases mammary carcinogenesis in a DMBA-induced model of rodent mammary cancer. Changes in PR-A, SRC 1-3, erbB3, and Akt activity are consistent with increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis playing a role in mammary cancer susceptibility. These alterations provide an explanation of enhanced mammary carcinogenesis after lactational BPA exposure.

Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Jun;117(6):910-5. Epub 2009 Jan 7. PMID: 19590682

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Green teaGreen tea polyphenol administration partly ameliorates irinotecan chemotherapy-induced side effects in the small intestine of mice.


The chemotherapeutic agent irinotecan (IT) is highly effective against several types of cancer, although its use is limited due to severe intestinal toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory and oxidative stress-related processes contributing to small intestinal mucosa damage and to determine the extent to which green tea polyphenols could ameliorate the detrimental effects induced by IT. In Expt. 1, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with IT or saline on 2 consecutive days. For time kinetic measurements, the IT-treated mice were killed at 3, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the 2nd dose of IT. Three hours after IT administration, the ileum glutathione concentration dropped significantly. Lipid peroxidation and inflammation, as measured by macrophage inflammatory protein-2 content, myeloperoxidase activity, and nuclear factor-kappaB translocation, were highest between 24 and 48 h after IT treatment. In Expt. 2, green tea polyphenols (1 g/L) were supplied via drinking water for 7 d before and 3 d after treatment with IT. Green tea polyphenols significantly affected the glutathione:glutathione disulfide ratio but not lipid peroxidation, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 levels, myeloperoxidase activity, or nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Our study reveals that IT administration is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, both occurring simultaneously to IT-induced mucosal damage. The antioxidative defense is affected soon after IT administration. Green tea polyphenols supplied orally protected against oxidation in our experimental model and could be one approach to reducing the risk of IT-induced side effects in the clinical setting.

J Nutr. 2007 Mar;137(3):634-40. PMID: 17311952

70
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Resveratrol enhances the sensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma to chemotherapeutic agents.


Cholangiocarcinomas are devastating cancers that are resistant to chemotherapies. Resveratrol, a food-derived polyphenol with antitumorigenic properties, can regulate the expression of cytochrome p450 1b1 (Cyp1b1), which may confer chemoresistance in various cancers. Our aims were to assess the effects of resveratrol on the sensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic agents and show an association between Cyp1b1 expression and chemosensitivity. Cholangiocarcinoma cell lines were treated with resveratrol before the addition of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), gemcitabine, or mitomycin C. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by MTS assays and Annexin staining. Resveratrol effects on cholangiocarcinoma tumor sensitivity to 5-FU was assessed in an in vivo xenograft model using Mz-ChA-1 cells. After resveratrol treatment, Cyp1b1 expression was assessed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Stable-transfected cell lines with Cyp1b1 expression knocked down (Mz-Cyp1b1) were used to assess sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents by MTS assays and Annexin staining and in a xenograft model using Mz-ChA-1 and Mz-Cyp1b1 cells, respectively. For each chemotherapeutic agent, co-treatment with resveratrol in vitro decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis to a greater extent than with the chemotherapeutic agent alone. In vivo, 5-FU+resveratrol decreased tumor size and increased TUNEL staining to a greater extent than 5-FU alone. In parallel, resveratrol decreased Cyp1b1 expression in Mz-ChA-1 cells and in cholangiocarcinoma tumors. Mz-Cyp1b1 cells were more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro than mock-transfected cells, and Mz-Cyp1b1-induced tumors were more susceptible to 5-FU treatment. We suggest that resveratrol treatment may be a useful adjunct therapy to improve chemosensitivity in cholangiocarcinoma.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 10 May 2010; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2010.99.

Lab Invest. 2010 May 10. Epub 2010 May 10. PMID: 20458282

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Cocao liquor extract may attenuate liver cancer progression.


This study investigated the effect of cacao liquor extract (CLE) on tumor marker enzymes--alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities--in plasma and/or liver of hepatocarcinogenic rats, which were induced with diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene. Twenty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 150-330 g) were divided into four groups (n = 6-8): normal control group (N), normal group + CLE (NE), cancer group (C), and cancer group + CLE (CE). Analysis of variance showed significant differences (P

J Med Food. 2004;7(1):7-12. PMID: 15117546

72
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Apple juice upregulates antioxidant-associated genes in the rat colon and liver, which may account for apple's anti-cancer activity.


BACKGROUND: The risk of cancer and other degenerative diseases is inversely correlated with consumption of fruits and vegetables. This beneficial effect is mainly attributed to secondary plant constituents such as polyphenols, supposed to play a major role in protection against ROS (reactive oxygen species)-associated toxicity. AIM OF THE STUDY: To elucidate the potential of differently manufactured apple juices (clear AJ/cloudy AJ/smoothie, in comparison with a polyphenol-free control juice) to modulate expression of ARE-dependent genes. METHODS: In male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8/group; 10d juice intervention, 4d wash-out; 4 treatment cycles), expression of target genes (superoxide dismutase, SOD1/SOD2; glutathione peroxidase, GPX1/GPX2; gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase, GCLC/GCLM; glutathione reductase, GSR; catalase, CAT; NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, NQO1 and transcription factor erythroid-derived 2-like-2, Nrf2) was quantified with duplex RT-PCR, using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as control. RESULTS: In colon and liver of rats consuming polyphenol-free control juice, rather similar basic expressions were observed (relative GAPDH ratios ranging from 2 to 0.7 and 2.5-0.3, respectively). In the distal colon, apple juice intervention slightly but significantly induced most genes (e.g. GPX2, GSR, CAT, Nrf2; p<0.001), whereas in the liver only GPX1 and NQO1 mRNA were up-regulated; other hepatic target genes were not affected or down-regulated (SOD1, SOD2, GCLC/M, GSR), concomitant with the absence of Nrf2 induction. Induction of antioxidant gene expression differed with juice type (cloudy AJ>clear AJ ~ smoothie). CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results underline the potential of polyphenol-rich apple juice to increase the expression of ARE-dependent antioxidant genes.

Carcinogenesis. 2000 Aug;21(8):1461-7. PMID: 20652274

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Dietary curcumin has a chemopreventive effect on inflammation-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice.


Scope: Curcumin is a polyphenol with a variety of pharmacologic effects. We evaluate the effect of dietary curcumin on the severity of repeated colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Methods and results: Six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomized into two dietary groups: standard diet and curcumin at 0.6% diet. The mice were exposed to 15 cycles of 0.7% dextran sodium sulphate for 1 week followed by distilled water for 10 days. After curcumin diet, the disease activity index presented a statistical reduction in the last cycles, macroscopic tumors were not seen and the microscopic study showed minor neoplasic lesions with respect to standard diet-group.β-Catenin translocation to the cytoplasm and/or nucleus was observed in the tumor tissue, but this translocation and its intensity were significantly minor in the curcumin diet-DSS animals. Cytokines as tumor necrosis factor-α and IFN-γ were significantly diminished in DSS-animals fed with curcumin. Conversely, non-modification of p53 expression was observed and cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly reduced in the curcumin diet-DSS group. Conclusion: We demonstrate the protective/preventive effect of curcumin in the progression of colorectal cancer associated to colitis, which was correlated with a lowered immunoreactivity of ß-catenin, a non-modification of p53 expression, a reduction of proinflammatory cytokine levels and a decrease of inflammatory protein overexpression.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011 Feb;55(2):259-67. Epub 2010 Sep 16. PMID: 20848615

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Systemic administration of polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (NanoCurc) blocks tumor growth and metastases in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer.


Curcumin or diferuloylmethane is a yellow polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa). A large volume (several hundreds) of published reports has established the anticancer and chemopreventative properties of curcumin in preclinical models of every known major cancer type. Nevertheless, the clinical translation of curcumin has been significantly hampered due to its poor systemic bioavailability, which mandates that patients consume up to 8 to 10 g of the free drug orally each day to achieve detectable levels in circulation. We have engineered a polymeric nanoparticle encapsulated curcumin formulation (NanoCurc) that shows remarkably higher systemic bioavailability in plasma and tissues compared with free curcumin upon parenteral administration. In xenograft models of human pancreatic cancer established in athymic mice, administration of parenteral NanoCurc significantly inhibits primary tumor growth in both subcutaneous and orthotopic settings. The combination of parenteral NanoCurc with gemcitabine results in enhanced tumor growth inhibition versus either single agent, suggesting an additive therapeutic influence in vivo. Furthermore, this combination completely abrogates systemic metastases in orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenograft models. Tumor growth inhibition is accompanied by significant reduction in activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, as well as significant reduction in expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cyclin D1, in xenografts treated with NanoCurc and gemcitabine. NanoCurc is a promising new formulation that is able to overcome a major impediment for the clinical translation of curcumin to cancer patients by improving systemic bioavailability, and by extension, therapeutic efficacy.

Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Aug;9(8):2255-64. Epub 2010 Jul 20. PMID: 20647339

75
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Curcumin improves early functional results after experimental spinal cord injury.


BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and well known as a multifunctional drug with anti-oxidative, anticancerous, and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the use of the curcumin and the methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) functionally, biochemically, and pathologically after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI).METHOD: Forty rats were randomly allocated into five groups. Group 1 was performed only laminectomy. Group 2 was introduced 70-g closing force aneurysm clip injury. Group 3 was given 30 mg/kg MPSS intraperitoneally immediately after the trauma. Group 4 was given 200 mg/kg of curcumin immediately after the trauma. Group 5 was the vehicle, and immediately after trauma, 1 mL of rice bran oil was injected. The animals were examined by inclined plane score and Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale 24 h after the trauma. At the end of the experiment, spinal cord tissue samples were harvested to analyze tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity and pathological evaluation.FINDINGS: Curcumin treatment improved neurologic outcome, which was supported by decreased level of tissue MDA and increased levels of tissue GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT activity. Light microscopy results also showed preservation of tissue structure in the treatment group.CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the neuroprotective effects of curcumin on experimental SCI model. By increasing tissue levels of GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT, curcumin seems to reduce the effects of injury to the spinal cord, which may be beneficial for neuronal survival.

Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010 Sep;152(9):1583-90; discussion 1590. Epub 2010 Jun 10. PMID: 20535508

76
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Curcumin reverses T cell-mediated adaptive immune dysfunctions in tumor-bearing hosts.


Immune dysfunction is well documented during tumor progression and likely contributes to tumor immune evasion. CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are involved in antigen-specific tumor destruction and CD4(+) T cells are essential for helping this CD8(+) T cell-dependent tumor eradication. Tumors often target and inhibit T-cell function to escape from immune surveillance. This dysfunction includes loss of effector and memory T cells, bias towards type 2 cytokines and expansion of T regulatory (Treg) cells. Curcumin has previously been shown to have antitumor activity and some research has addressed the immunoprotective potential of this plant-derived polyphenol in tumor-bearing hosts. Here we examined the role of curcumin in the prevention of tumor-induced dysfunction of T cell-based immune responses. We observed severe loss of both effector and memory T-cell populations, downregulation of type 1 and upregulation of type 2 immune responses and decreased proliferation of effector T cells in the presence of tumors. Curcumin, in turn, prevented this loss of T cells, expanded central memory T cell (T(CM))/effector memory T cell (T(EM)) populations, reversed the type 2 immune bias and attenuated the tumor-induced inhibition of T-cell proliferation in tumor-bearing hosts. Further investigation revealed that tumor burden upregulated Treg cell populations and stimulated the production of the immunosuppressive cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and IL-10 in these cells. Curcumin, however, inhibited the suppressive activity of Treg cells by downregulating the production of TGF-beta and IL-10 in these cells. More importantly, curcumin treatment enhanced the ability of effector T cells to kill cancer cells. Overall, our observations suggest that the unique properties of curcumin may be exploited for successful attenuation of tumor-induced suppression of cell-mediated immune responses.

Cell Mol Immunol. 2010 Jul;7(4):306-15. Epub 2010 Mar 22. PMID: 20305684

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Consumption of some polyphenols reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the secondary bile acids of risk factors of colon cancer.


This study was performed to examine the effect of dietary polyphenols on fecal secondary bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, the risk factors of colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, rats were fed a 30% beef tallow diet containing 0.5% polyphenols for 3 weeks. Dietary curcumin and caffeic acid significantly reduced the fecal concentration of deoxycholic acid. Dietary caffeic acid, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid significantly reduced fecal lithocholic acid. Fecal hyodeoxycholic acid, a metabolite of lithocholic acid, was markedly lowered by dietary curcumin, caffeic acid, catechin, and rutin. In experiment 2, rats were fed a 30 or 5% beef tallow diet with or without the addition of 0.5% curcumin. In the rats without receiving curcumin, the fecal level of deoxycholic acid was significantly higher in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Fecal deoxycholic acid was significantly reduced by dietary curcumin in the high-fat diets but not in the low-fat diets. The results suggest novel effects of some polyphenols favorable for colon health by reducing secondary bile acids in animals fed a high-fat diet.

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 23;57(18):8587-90. PMID: 19711910

78
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The combination of epigallocatechin gallate and curcumin suppresses ER alpha-breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.


Both epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin have shown efficacy in various in vivo and in vitro models of cancer. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of these naturally derived polyphenolic compounds in vitro and in vivo, when given in combination. Studies in MDA-MB-231 cells demonstrated that EGCG + curcumin was synergistically cytotoxic and that this correlated with G(2)/M-phase cell cycle arrest. After 12 hr, EGCG (25 microM) + curcumin (3 microM) increased the proportion of cells in G(2)/M-phase to 263 +/- 16% of control and this correlated with a 50 +/- 4% decrease in cell number compared to control. To determine if this in vitro result would translate in vivo, athymic nude female mice were implanted with MDA-MB-231 cells and treated with curcumin (200 mg/kg/day, po), EGCG (25 mg/kg/day, ip), EGCG + curcumin, or vehicle control (5 ml/kg/day, po) for 10 weeks. Tumor volume in the EGCG + curcumin treated mice decreased 49% compared to vehicle control mice (p

Int J Cancer. 2008 May 1;122(9):1966-71. PMID: 18098290

79
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Curcumin exhibits chemopreventive properties in hematogenous breast cancer metastases in immunodeficient mice.


Dissemination of metastatic cells probably occurs long before diagnosis of the primary tumor. Metastasis during early phases of carcinogenesis in high risk patients is therefore a potential prevention target. The plant polyphenol Curcumin has been proposed for dietary prevention of cancer. We therefore examined its effects on the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitroand in a mouse metastasis model. Curcumin strongly induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells in correlation with reduced activation of the survival pathway NFkappaB, as a consequence of diminished IotakappaB and p65 phosphorylation. Curcumin also reduces the expression of major matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) due to reduced NFkappa B activity and transcriptional downregulation of AP-1. NFkappa B/p65 silencing is sufficient to downregulate c-jun and MMP expression. Reduced NFkappa B/AP-1 activity and MMP expression lead to diminished invasion through a reconstituted basement membrane and to a significantly lower number of lung metastases in immunodeficient mice after intercardiac injection of 231 cells (p=0.0035). 68% of Curcumin treated but only 17% of untreated animals showed no or very few lung metastases, most likely as a consequence of down-regulation of NFkappa B/AP-1 dependent MMP expression and direct apoptotic effects on circulating tumor cells but not on established metastases. Dietary chemoprevention of metastases appears therefore feasible.

Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;19(1-4):137-52. PMID: 17310108

80
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Dietary constituents inhibit chemically-induced DNA and hemoglobin adductions associated with cancer.


Nitrobenzene (NB), a widely used industrial chemical, is a likely human carcinogen. Many dietary constituents can suppress the DNA-adduction, acting as the inhibitors of cancer. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE), tea polyphenols (TP), garlic squeeze, curcumin, and grapestone extract on NB-DNA and NB-hemoglobin (Hb) adductions in mice using an ultrasensitive method of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with 14C-labelled nitrobenzene. All of these dietary constituents showed their inhibitory effects on DNA or Hb adduction. VC, VE, TP and grapestone extract could efficaciously inhibit the adductions by 33-50%, and all of these six agents could inhibit Hb adduction by 30-64%. We also investigated resveratrol, curcumin, VC and VE as inhibitors of NB-DNA adduction in vitro using liquid scintillation counting technique. These agents in the presence of NADPH and S9 components also pronouncedly blocked DNA adduction in a dose-dependent profile. Our study suggests that these seven constituents may interrupt the process of NB-induced chemical carcinogenesis.

Appl Radiat Isot. 2003 Mar;58(3):291-8. PMID: 12595006

81
[+]

Curcumin inhibits nitric oxide production.


Curcumin is a naturally occurring, dietary polyphenolic phytochemical that is under preclinical trial evaluation for cancer preventive drug development and whose working pharmacological actions include anti-inflammation. With respect to inflammation, in vitro, it inhibits the activation of free radical-activated transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and AP-1, and reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and interleukin-8. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an inflammation-induced enzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), a molecule that may lead to carcinogenesis. Here, we report that in ex vivo cultured BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages, 1-20 microM of curcumin reduced the production of iNOS mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that, in vivo, two oral treatments of 0.5 mL of a 10-microM solution of curcumin (92 ng/g of body weight) reduced iNOS mRNA expression in the livers of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-injected mice by 50-70%. Although many hold that curcumin needs to be given at dosages that are unattainable through diet to produce an in vivo effect, we were able to obtain potency at nanomoles per gram of body weight. This efficacy is associated with two modifications in our preparation and feeding regimen: 1) an aqueous solution of curcumin was prepared by initially dissolving the compound in 0.5 N NaOH and then immediately diluting it in PBS; and 2) mice were fed curcumin at dusk after fasting. Inhibition was not observed in mice that were fed ad lib., suggesting that food intake may interfere with the absorption of curcumin.

Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 Jun 15;55(12):1955-62. PMID: 9714315

82
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Bioavailability Study: Pterostilbene demonstrates greater bioavailability than resveratrol.


PURPOSE: Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a naturally occurring polyphenol with a broad range of possible health benefits, including anti-cancer activity. However, the biological activity of resveratrol may be limited by poor absorption and first-pass metabolism: only low plasma concentrations of resveratrol are seen following oral administration, and metabolism to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates is rapid. Methylated polyphenol analogs (such as pterostilbene [3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-trans-stilbene], the dimethylether analog of resveratrol) may overcome these limitations to pharmacologic efficacy. The present study was designed to compare the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism of resveratrol and pterostilbene following equimolar oral dosing in rats. METHODS: The agents were administered orally via gavage for 14 consecutive days at 50 or 150 mg/kg/day for resveratrol and 56 or 168 mg/kg/day for pterostilbene. Two additional groups were dosed once intravenously with 10 and 11.2 mg/kg for resveratrol and pterostilbene, respectively. Plasma concentrations of agents and metabolites were measured using a high-pressure liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer system. Noncompartmental analysis was used to derive pharmacokinetic parameters. RESULTS: Resveratrol and pterostilbene were approximately 20 and 80% bioavailable, respectively. Following oral dosing, plasma levels of pterostilbene and pterostilbene sulfate were markedly greater than were plasma levels of resveratrol and resveratrol sulfate. Although plasma levels of resveratrol glucuronide exceeded those of pterostilbene glucuronide, those differences were smaller than those of the parent drugs and sulfate metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: When administered orally, pterostilbene demonstrates greater bioavailability and total plasma levels of both the parent compound and metabolites than does resveratrol. These differences in agent pharmacokinetics suggest that the in vivo biological activity of equimolar doses of pterostilbene may be greater than that of resveratrol.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010 Nov 30. Epub 2010 Nov 30. PMID: 21116625

83
[+]

Pterostilbene and quercetin inhibits metastatic melanoma growth and extends host survival.


Inhibition of cancer growth by resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene; RESV), a phytoalexin present in many plant species, is limited by its low bioavailability. Pterostilbene (3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene; PTER) and quercetin (3,3',4',5,6-pentahydroxyflavone; QUER), two structurally related and naturally occurring small polyphenols, show longer half-life in vivo. In vitro growth of highly malignant B16 melanoma F10 cells (B16M-F10) is inhibited (56%) by short-time exposure (60 min/day) to PTER (40 microm) and QUER (20 microm) (approximate mean values of plasma concentrations measured within the first hour after intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg each polyphenol). Intravenous administration of PTER and QUER (20 mg/kg per day) to mice inhibits (73%) metastatic growth of B16M-F10 cell in the liver, a common site for metastasis development. The anti-metastatic mechanism involves: 1) a PTER-induced inhibition of vascular adhesion molecule 1 expression in the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium, which consequently decreases B16M-F10 cell adhesion to the endothelium through very late activation antigen 4; and 2) a QUER- and PTER-induced inhibition of Bcl-2 expression in metastatic cells, which sensitizes them to vascular endothelium-induced cytotoxicity. Our findings demonstrate that the association of PTER and QUER inhibits metastatic melanoma growth and extends host survival.

Neoplasia. 2005 Jan;7(1):37-47. PMID: 15736313

84
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Resveratrol enhances aantitumor activity of TRAIL in prostate cancer xenografts.


BACKGROUND: Resveratrol (3, 4', 5 tri-hydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring polyphenol, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and antitumor activities. We have recently shown that resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells through multiple mechanisms in vitro. Therefore, the present study was designed to validate whether resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in a xenograft model of prostate cancer.METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resveratrol and TRAIL alone inhibited growth of PC-3 xenografts in nude mice by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation (PCNA and Ki67 staining) and inducing apoptosis (TUNEL staining). The combination of resveratrol and TRAIL was more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than single agent alone. In xenografted tumors, resveratrol upregulated the expressions of TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5, Bax and p27(/KIP1), and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1. Treatment of mice with resveratrol and TRAIL alone inhibited angiogenesis (as demonstrated by reduced number of blood vessels, and VEGF and VEGFR2 positive cells) and markers of metastasis (MMP-2 and MMP-9). The combination of resveratrol with TRAIL further inhibited number of blood vessels in tumors, and circulating endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive endothelial cells than single agent alone. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the cytoplasmic phosphorylation of FKHRL1 resulting in its enhanced activation as demonstrated by increased DNA binding activity.CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL by activating FKHRL1 and its target genes. The ability of resveratrol to inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis, and enhance the therapeutic potential of TRAIL suggests that resveratrol alone or in combination with TRAIL can be used for the management of prostate cancer.

PLoS One. 2010;5(12):e15627. Epub 2010 Dec 28. PMID: 21209944

85
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Resveratrol suppresses the growth of cancer stem-like cells.


Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound and has been shown to exhibit cardio-protective as well as anti-neoplastic effects on various types of cancers. However, the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor effect is not clearly defined. Resveratrol has been shown to have strong hypolipidemic effect on normal adipocytes and as hyper-lipogenesis is a hallmark of cancer cell physiology, the effect of resveratrol on lipid synthesis in cancer stem-like cells (CD24(-)/CD44(+)/ESA(+)) that were isolated from both ER+ and ER- breast cancer cell lines was examined. The authors found that resveratrol significantly reduced the cell viability and mammosphere formation followed by inducing apoptosis in cancer stem-like cells. This inhibitory effect of resveratrol is accompanied by a significant reduction in lipid synthesis which is caused by the down-regulation of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene followed by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes, DAPK2 and BNIP3. The activation of apoptotic pathway in the cancer stem-like cells was suppressed by TOFA and by Fumonisin B1, suggesting that resveratrol-induced apoptosis is indeed through the modulation of FAS-mediated cell survival signaling. Importantly, resveratrol was able to significantly suppress the growth of cancer stem-like cells in an animal model of xenograft without showing apparental toxicity. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that resveratrol is capable of inducing apoptosis in the cancer stem-like cells through suppression of lipogenesis by modulating FAS expression, which highlights a novel mechanism of anti-tumor effect of resveratrol.

Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Dec 29. Epub 2010 Dec 29. PMID: 21188630

86
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Trans-resveratrol reduces precancerous colonic lesions in dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.


trans-Resveratrol, a natural occurring polyphenol, has been described as an antiproliferative and proapoptotic agent in vitro. Here, we studied the effect of trans-resveratrol administered orally at a dose of 60 mg/kg for 49 days on early preneoplastic markers induced by the intraperitoneal injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (20 mg/kg). We measured trans-resveratrol and its derivates by liquid-liquid extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection analysis in colon contents. Dihydroresveratrol was the most abundant compound in the colon, followed by trans-resveratrol glucuronide and small amounts of trans-resveratrol and its sulfate. The administration of trans-resveratrol decreased aberrant crypt foci by 52%, and mucin depleted foci by 45% in colon. In conclusion, the correlation between the reduction of precancerous colonic lesions and the availability of trans-resveratrol in the colon provides a new insight into the therapeutical potential of this polyphenol and its metabolites.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Mar;43(3):433-41. PMID: 20521815

87
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Resveratrol suppresses colitis and colon cancer associated with colitis.


Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol that exhibits pleiotropic health beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective, and cancer-protective activities. It is recognized as one of the more promising natural molecules in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic, chronic inflammatory disease of the colon associated with a high colon cancer risk. Here, we used a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of colitis, which resembles human ulcerative colitis pathology. Resveratrol mixed in food ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol significantly improves inflammation score, downregulates the percentage of neutrophils in the mesenteric lymph nodes and lamina propria, and modulates CD3(+) T cells that express tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IFN-gamma. Markers of inflammation and inflammatory stress (p53 and p53-phospho-Ser(15)) are also downregulated by resveratrol. Because chronic colitis drives colon cancer risk, we carried out experiments to determine the chemopreventive properties of resveratrol. Tumor incidence is reduced from 80% in mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM) + DSS to 20% in mice treated with AOM + DSS + resveratrol (300 ppm). Tumor multiplicity also decreased with resveratrol treatment. AOM + DSS-treated mice had 2.4 +/- 0.7 tumors per animal compared with AOM + DSS + 300 ppm resveratrol, which had 0.2 +/- 0.13 tumors per animal. The current study indicates that resveratrol is a useful, nontoxic complementary and alternative strategy to abate colitis and potentially colon cancer associated with colitis.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Apr;3(4):549-59. Epub 2010 Mar 23. PMID: 20332304

88
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Podophyllum hexandrum exhibits radioprotective properties.


Podophyllum hexandrum, a perennial herb commonly known as the Himalayan May Apple, is well known in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. P. hexandrum has been widely used for the treatment of venereal warts, skin infections, bacterial and viral infections, and different cancers of the brain, lung and bladder. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of REC-2006, a bioactive fractionated extract from the rhizome of P. hexandrum, on the kinetics of induction and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in murine thymocytes in vivo. We evaluated its effect on non-specific radiation-induced DNA damage by the alkaline halo assay in terms of relative nuclear spreading factor (RNSF) and gene-specific radiation-induced DNA damage via semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whole body exposure of animals with gamma rays (10 Gy) caused a significant amount of DNA damage in thymocytes (RNSF values 17.7 +/- 0.47, 12.96 +/- 1.64 and 3.3 +/- 0.014) and a reduction in the amplification of beta-globin gene to 0, 28 and 43% at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. Administrating REC-2006 at a radioprotective concentration (15 mg kg(-1) body weight) 1 h before irradiation resulted in time-dependent reduction of DNA damage evident as a decrease in RNSF values 6.156 +/- 0.576, 1.647 +/- 0.534 and 0.496 +/- 0.012, and an increase in beta-globin gene amplification 36, 95 and 99%, at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. REC-2006 scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner stabilized DPPH free radicals and also inhibited superoxide anions. Various polyphenols and flavonoides present in REC-2006 might contribute to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals, thereby preventing DNA damage and stimulating its repair.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Dec 11. PMID: 20008078

89
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Resveratrol has a chemoprevention effect in chemically-Induced hepatocarcinogenesis.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common cancers in the world, is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. HCC develops most frequently in the background of oxidative stress and chronic hepatic inflammation due to viral infections, alcohol abuse as well as exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens. As the prognosis of HCC is extremely poor and mostly unresponsive to current chemotherapeutic treatment regimens, novel preventive approaches like chemoprevention are urgently needed. We have recently found that resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol present in grapes, berries, peanuts as well as red wine, prevents diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis in rats through suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress. As cytokines are considered to be important mediators of inflammation, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on hepatic cytokines during DENA-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Liver samples were harvested from our previous study in which resveratrol (50, 100 and 300 mg/kg) was found to exert a chemopreventive action against rat liver tumorigenesis induced by DENA. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The mRNA expression of these cytokines was studied by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for comparison. Resveratrol treatment reversed the DENA-induced alteration of the level and expression of hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. From the current results in conjunction with our previous findings, it can be concluded that resveratrol-mediated chemoprevention of rat liver carcinogenesis is related to alteration of proinflammatory cytokines.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2011 Apr 5. Epub 2011 Apr 5. PMID: 21466437

90
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Chrysin suppresses experimentally-induced renal carcinogenesis.


Flavonoid family is a rich source of polyphenolic compounds and hence possess strong antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of chrysin; a bio-active flavonoid as an anticancer agent. Renal cancer was initiated by single intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN 200mg/kg BW body weight) and promoted by twice weekly administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) 9mg Fe/Kg BW for 16 wk. In the present study, we report the chemopreventive effects of chrysin against (Fe-NTA) induced renal oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperproliferative response, and two-stage renal carcinogenesis. To ascertain the molecular mechanism implicated in the antitumor promoting activity of chrysin, its effect was investigated on markers of tumor promotion and inflammation: ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), inducible nitric oxide sythase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxyegenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and on levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Pretreatment of animals with chrysin at both doses (20 and 40mg/kg body weight) markedly inhibited all. Further, Fe-NTA enhances renal lipid peroxidation, with concomitant reduction in reduced glutathione content (GSH), antioxidant enzymes, and phase IImetabolizing enzymes. It induces serum toxicity markers viz., blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Prophylactic treatment of animals with chrysin before the administration of Fe-NTA was effective in modulating oxidative and renal injury markers and resulted in the diminution of Fe-NTA mediated injury. These results suggest chrysin as an effective chemopreventive agent having the capability to obstruct DEN initiated and Fe-NTA promoted renal cancer in the rat model.

Toxicol Lett. 2012 Nov 26. Epub 2012 Nov 26. PMID: 23194824

91
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Red seaweed was more effective than tamoxifen in suppressing tumor growth by 27% with little toxicity to the liver and kidneys.


The tropical edible red seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii L.) is rich in nutrients and polyphenolic compounds that may suppress cancer through its antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. The study reports on rat mammary tumor suppression and tissue antioxidant status modulation by E. cottonii ethanol extract (ECE). The effect of orally administered ECE (100 mg/kg body-weight) was compared with that of tamoxifen (10 mg/kg body-weight). Rat was induced to develop mammary tumor with subcutaneous injection of LA-7 cells (6 × 10(6) cells/rat). The ECE was more effective than tamoxifen in suppressing tumor growth (27%), improving tissues (plasma, liver,and kidney) malondialdehyde concentrations, superoxide dismutase activity and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations (P<0.05). Unlike tamoxifen, the ECE displayed little toxicity to the liver and kidneys. The ECE exhibited strong anticancer effect with enzyme modulating properties, suggesting its potential as a suppressing agent for mammary gland tumor.

Nutr Cancer. 2013 Feb ;65(2):255-62. PMID: 23441613

92
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Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles induce apoptotic cell death through regulation of the function of MDR1 and reactive oxygen species in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells.


Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound which possesses anticancer potential. It has been shown to induce cell death in a variety of cancer cells, however, its effect on CAL27‑cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer cells (CAR cells) has not been elucidated to date. The low water solubility of curcumin which leads to poor bioavailability, however, has been highlighted as a major limiting factor. In this study, we utilized water-soluble PLGA curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-NPs), and investigated the effects of Cur-NPs on CAR cells. The results showed Cur-NPs induced apoptosis in CAR cells but exhibited low cytotoxicity to normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and normal human oral keratinocytes (OKs). Cur-NPs triggered DNA concentration, fragmentation and subsequentapoptosis. Compared to untreated CAR cells, a more detectable amount of Calcein-AM accumulation was found inside the treated CAR cells. Cur-NPs suppressed the protein and mRNA expression levels of MDR1. Both the activity and the expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were elevated in the treated CAR cells. The Cur-NP-triggered apoptosis was blocked by specific inhibitors of pan-caspase (z-VAD-fmk), caspase-3 (z-DEVD-fmk), caspase-9 (z-LEHD-fmk) and antioxidant agent (N-acetylcysteine; NAC). Cur-NPs increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, upregulated the protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-9, cytochrome c, Apaf-1, AIF, Bax and downregulated the protein levels of Bcl-2. Our results suggest that Cur-NPs triggered the intrinsic apoptotic pathway through regulating the function of multiple drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CAR cells. Cur-NPs could be potentially efficacious in the treatment of cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer.

Int J Oncol. 2013 Oct ;43(4):1141-50. Epub 2013 Aug 5. PMID: 23917396

93
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Peach polyphenols inhibited tumor growth and reduced the risk of metastasis in MDA-MB-435 cells at levels achievable with diet.


The tumor growth inhibition and anti-metastatic effects of peach polyphenolics were investigated in vivo using a xenograft model and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Results showed that tumor growth and lung metastasis were inhibited in vivo by peach polyphenolics in a dose range of 0.8-1.6 mg/day, and these effects were mediated by inhibition of metalloproteinases gene expression. Modulation of metalloproteinase-2, metalloproteinase-3 and metalloproteinase-13 gene expression may be some of the molecular targets for anti-metastatic activity of peach polyphenolics. Therefore, these compounds may constitute a novel chemopreventive tool to reduce the risk of metastasis in the combination therapy when primary cancer is diagnosed. Conversion to equivalent human intake for future clinical studies using the body surface area normalization method gave a dose of ~370.6 mg/day for a human adult of 60 kg, which can be supplied by consuming two to three peach fruit per day or alternatively using a dietary supplement peach polyphenol extract powder.

J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Mar 19. Epub 2014 Mar 19. PMID: 24745759

94
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Black raspberries were effective at inhibiting esophageal tumorigenesis and inflammatory signaling.


Diets containing either freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) or their polyphenolic anthocyanins (ACs) have been shown to inhibit the development of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal cancer in rats. The present study was conducted to determine whether PCA, a major microbial metabolite of black raspberry (BRB) ACs, also prevents NMBA-induced esophageal cancer in rats. F344 rats were injected with NMBA three times a week for 5 weeks and then fed control or experimental diets containing 6.1% BRBs, an anthocyanin (AC)-enriched fraction derived from BRBs, or protocatechuic acid (PCA). Animals were exsanguinated at weeks 15, 25, and 35 to quantify the development of preneoplastic lesions and tumors in the esophagus, and to relate this to the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. At weeks 15 and 25, all experimental diets were equally effective in reducing NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, as well as in reducing the expression of pentraxin-3 (PTX3), a cytokine produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α. All experimental diets were also active at reducing tumorigenesis at week 35; however, the BRB diet was significantly more effective than the AC and PCA diets. Furthermore, all experimental diets inhibited inflammation in the esophagus via reducing biomarker (COX-2, iNOS, p-NF-κB, and sEH) and cytokine (PTX3) expression. Overall, our data suggest that BRBs, their component ACs, and PCA inhibit NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, at least in part, by their inhibitory effects on genes associated with inflammation. Cancer Prev Res; 7(6); 574-84. ©2014 AACR.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Jun ;7(6):574-84. Epub 2014 Mar 25. PMID: 24667581

95
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Pomegranate fruit juice suppressed androgen dependent prostate carcinogenesis.


BACKGROUND: Ellagic acid (EA), a component of pomegranate fruit juice (PFJ), is a plant-derived polyphenol and has antioxidant properties. PFJ and EA have been reported to suppress various cancers, including prostate cancer. However, their chemopreventive effects on development and progression of prostate cancer using in vivo models have not been established yet.METHODS: The transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) model was used to investigate the modulating effects of PFJ and EA on prostate carcinogenesis. Three-week-old male transgenic rats were treated with EA or PFJ for 10 weeks. In vitro assays for cell growth, apoptosis, and Western blot were performed using the human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP (androgen-dependent), PC-3 and DU145 (androgen-independent).RESULTS: PFJ decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in lateral prostate, and both EA and PFJ suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis and induced apoptosis by caspase 3 activation in the TRAP model. In addition, the level of lipid peroxidation in ventral prostate was significantly decreased by EA treatment. EA was able to inhibit cell proliferation of LNCaP, whereas this effect was not observed in PC-3 and DU145. As with the in vivo data, EA induced apoptosis in LNCaP by increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activation. Cell-cycle related proteins, p21(WAF) , p27(Kip) , cdk2, and cyclin E, were increased while cyclin D1 and cdk1 were decreased by EA treatment.CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that PFJ and EA are potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer, and EA may be the active component of PFJ that exerts these anti-cancer effects. Prostate 9999: 1-10, 2014.© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Prostate. 2014 Oct 4. Epub 2014 Oct 4. PMID: 25284475

96
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Eriodictyol synergistically potentiates the anti-tumour effect of EGCG by amplifying 67LR-dependent signalling in MM cells


Green tea extract (GTE) induces apoptosis of cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells. Several clinical trials reported that GTE was well tolerated and had potential anti-cancer efficacy. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) is the primary compound responsible for the anti-cancer effect of GTE; however, the effect of EGCG alone is limited. To identify GTE compounds capable of potentiating EGCG bioactivity, we performed metabolic profiling of 43 green tea cultivar panels by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Here, we revealed the polyphenol eriodictyol significantly potentiated apoptosis induction by EGCG in vitro and in a mouse tumour model by amplifying EGCG-induced activation of the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR)/protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/protein kinase C delta/acid sphingomyelinase signalling pathway. Our results show that metabolic profiling is an effective chemical-mining approach for identifying botanical drugs with therapeutic potential against multiple myeloma. Metabolic profiling-based data mining could be an efficient strategy for screening additional bioactive compounds and identifying effective chemical combinations.

Sci Rep. 2015 ;5:9474. Epub 2015 Mar 31. PMID: 25824377

97
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Our results reveal Flavin7 (F7) had substantial tumour-suppression effects of 58 % and reduced tumour incidence by 24 % in this breast cancer model.


PURPOSE: Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with cancer; thus, it is proposed that an extract of phytochemicals as present in whole fruits, vegetables, or grains may have anti-carcinogenic properties. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of fruit peel polyphenols (Flavin7) in the chemoprevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats were evaluated.METHODS: Lyophilized substance of Flavin7 (F7) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration, and mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, apoptosis and proliferation after F7 treatment in humanbreast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were performed.RESULTS: High-dose F7 suppressed tumour frequency by 58 % (P 

Eur J Nutr. 2015 May 1. Epub 2015 May 1. PMID: 25930965

98
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An antioxidant-rich extract of seaweed polyphenols combined with current PC treatment modalities may inhibit tumor relapse by targeting therapy-orchestrated autophagy in residual cells.


BACKGROUND: Identifying the drug-deliverables that target autophagy is crucial to finding a cure for pancreatic cancer (PC), as activated autophagy is associated with poor patient outcomes. Our recent studies recognized the anti-PC potential of an antioxidant-rich collection of seaweed polyphenols and identified potential compounds for the treatment of PC. Accordingly, we investigated whether such compounds could regulate autophagy in therapy-resistant PC cells in vitro and in residual PC in vivo.RESULTS: Human Panc-3.27 and MiaPaCa-2 cells were exposed to fractionated irradiation (FIR) with/without ethyl acetate (EA) polyphenol from Spatoglossum asperum (SA-EA), Padina tetrastromatica (PT-EA), or Hormophysa triquerta (HT-EA). The cells were subjected to QPCR to examine transcriptional alterations in the following autophagy functional regulators: ATG3, ATG5, ATG7, ATG12, LC3A, LC3B, Beclin, Myd88, HMGB1, Rage, and TLRs 1-9. Using a clinically relevant mouse model of residual PC, we use tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedures to investigate the potential of polyphenol(s) to target ATG3, ATG5, ATG12, LC3A, LC3B, BECN1, and SURIVIN after clinical radiotherapy. Radiation significantly increased the transcription of autophagy functional regulators in both cell lines. Seaweed polyphenols completely suppressed the transcription of all investigated autophagy regulators in both cell-lines. Gene silencing approach defined the role of LC3B in radiation-induced cell survival in this setting. TMA-IHC analysis revealed the complete regulation of ATG3, ATG5, ATG12, LC3A, LC3B, BECN1, and SURVIVIN in residual PC following SA-EA, PT-EA, and HT-EA treatment.CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the autophagy blue print in therapy-resistant PC cells for the first time. Moreover, the data strongly suggest that the selected polyphenols could serve as effective adjuvants for current PC treatment modalities and may inhibit tumor relapse by comprehensively targeting therapy-orchestrated autophagy in residual cells.

J Biomed Sci. 2015 ;22(1):28. Epub 2015 Apr 17. PMID: 25898131

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EGCG can be developed into a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of smoking‑associated NSCLC.


Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in green tea extract, has been found to have anticancer activities in various types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely clear. In the present study, the effects of EGCG on migration, invasion, angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by nicotine in A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were investigated, and the underlying molecular mechanisms were preliminarily examined. The results showed that different concentrations of EGCG significantly inhibited nicotine-induced migration and invasion. Moreover, EGCG reversed the upregulation of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), COX-2, p-Akt, p-ERK and vimentin protein levels and the downregulation of p53 and β-catenin protein levels mediated by nicotine in A549 cells, but had no significant effect on their mRNA levels. Furthermore, EGCG markedly inhibited HIF-1α‑dependentangiogenesis induced by nicotine in vitro and in vivo, and suppressed HIF-1α and VEGF protein expression induced by nicotine in A549 xenografts of nude mice. Taken together, the results indicated that EGCG inhibited nicotine-induced angiogenesis and EMT, leading to migration and invasion in A549cells. The results of the present study suggested that EGCG can be developed into a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of smoking‑associated NSCLC.

Oncol Rep. 2015 Jun ;33(6):2972-80. Epub 2015 Mar 31. PMID: 25845434

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Cocoa may merit further clinical investigation as a chemopreventive agent that helps prevent colitis-associated cancer.


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in males and the second most common cancer worldwide. Chronic colonic inflammation is a known risk factor for CRC. Cocoa contains many polyphenolic compounds that have beneficial effects in humans. The objective of this study is to explore the antioxidant properties of cocoa in the mouse model of azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis-associated cancer, focusing on the activation of Nrf2 signaling. Mice were treated with AOM/DSS and randomized to receive either a control diet or a 5 and 10% cocoa diet during the study period. On day 62 of the experiment, the entire colon was processed for biochemical and histopathological examination and further evaluations. Increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in AOM/DSS-induced mice; however, subsequent administration of cocoa decreased the MDA. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were decreased in the AOM/DSS mice. Cocoa treatment increases the activities/levels of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Inflammatory mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, were elevated during AOM/DSS-induction, and treatment with 5 and 10% cocoa effectively decreases the expression of iNOS and COX-2. The NF-E2-related factor 2 and its downstream targets, such as NQO1 and UDP-GT, were increased by cocoa treatment. The results of our study suggest that cocoa may merit further clinical investigation as a chemopreventive agent that helps prevent CAC.

Biofactors. 2015 Jan-Feb;41(1):1-14. Epub 2014 Dec 24. PMID: 25545372

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