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Dispersants

View the Evidence:
30 Abstracts with Dispersants Research

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Pubmed Data : Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1995 Oct;32(1):81-6. PMID: 8565881
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9554, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Environ Sci Technol. 2007 Aug 1;41(15):5571-4. PMID: 17822134
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Can J Comp Med. 1975 Oct;39(4):434-41. PMID: 1175077
Study Type : Animal Study
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Pubmed Data : Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1998 Aug;35(2):268-73. PMID: 9680519
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9527, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005 May;24(5):1219-27. PMID: 16111003
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9527, Dispersants
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Article Publish Status : This is a free article. Click here to read the complete article.
Pubmed Data : PLoS One. 2012 ;7(11):e50549. Epub 2012 Nov 27. PMID: 23209777
Study Type : Environmental
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Pubmed Data : Environ Pollut. 2007 Sep;149(2):227-38. Epub 2007 Apr 16. PMID: 17434246
Study Type : Animal Study
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Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Aquat Toxicol. 2001 Mar;52(1):49-60. PMID: 11163430
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9527, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Mar Pollut Bull. 2006 Oct;52(10):1182-9. Epub 2006 Mar 6. PMID: 16678214
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1998 Aug;35(2):274-80. PMID: 9680520
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9527, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001 Feb;40(2):264-70. PMID: 11243329
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2004 Nov;59(3):300-8. PMID: 15388269
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9500, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Mar Pollut Bull. 2003;47(1-6):105-13. PMID: 12787605
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2005 May;61(1):44-52. PMID: 15814309
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9527, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;150(2):218-23. Epub 2009 May 3. PMID: 19410657
Study Type : Animal Study
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Pubmed Data : Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2000 Jan;38(1):70-7. PMID: 10556373
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005 Jun;24(6):1496-504. PMID: 16117127
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Environ Pollut. 2003;122(2):205-15. PMID: 12531308
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001 Oct;89(4):201-7. PMID: 11881971
Study Type : Animal Study
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Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : J Appl Physiol. 1985 Jan;58(1):129-36. PMID: 2578444
Study Type : Animal Study
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Pubmed Data : Malays J Pathol. 1994 Dec;16(2):165-6. PMID: 9053567
Study Type : Animal Study
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Pubmed Data : Aquat Toxicol. 2010 Apr 15;97(2):134-41. Epub 2010 Jan 4. PMID: 20097436
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9500, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Environ Pollut. 2009 Mar;157(3):1058-61. Epub 2008 Nov 22. PMID: 19028002
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9500, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1996 Nov;35(2):183-9. PMID: 8950541
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9500, Corexit 9527, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Chemosphere. 1999 Nov;39(12):2141-57. PMID: 10576112
Study Type : Animal Study
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Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Mar Pollut Bull. 2007 Jul;54(7):983-93. Epub 2007 Apr 11. PMID: 17433372
Study Type : In Vitro Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Mar Pollut Bull. 2002 Aug;44(8):739-47. PMID: 12269476
Study Type : In Vitro Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9500, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010 Apr;84(4):438-42. Epub 2010 Mar 12. PMID: 20224975
Study Type : In Vitro Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Corexit 9500, Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Water Res. 2002 Sep;36(15):3821-33. PMID: 12369528
Study Type : Commentary
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Problem Substances : Dispersants
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Pubmed Data : Sci Total Environ. 1984 Apr 19;35(2):191-206. PMID: 6719106
Study Type : In Vitro Study
Additional Links
Problem Substances : Dispersants

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Dispersants-Related Blogs

BP Gulf Oil Spill Update: Corexit failed to degrade the oil. Dispersants only succeeded in disappearing the oil, biodegradation was not 'ramped up' by natural microbes.
Written by Sayer Ji, Founder
Conservative estimates indicate that the 2010 BP oil disaster released over 200 million gallons of oil into the Gulf, followed by at least 1.8 million gallons of dispersants. While the use of dispersants helped mitigate the public relations disaster by preventing the persistent formation of surface oil, as well as keeping many beaches visibly untouched, they also drove the oil deeper into the water column (and food chain) rendering a 2-dimensional problem (surface oil) into a 3-dimensional one.

Dispersants are said to "accelerate the biodegradation" of hydrocarbons released into the Gulf by breaking the oil up into smaller particles. While this may be true, there has been little evidence presented to unequivocally verify these claims.  Contrary evidence also exists (as listed in the studies below) which shows that dispersants inhibit the microbial biodegradation of certain lesser soluble hydrocarbons, while also accelerating the absorption of hydrocarbons into plant and animal life.

Here are some additional concerns: 

1) Dispersants like the Corexit 9500 used in the Gulf are composed of chemicals which have been shown to have significant toxicity to a wide range of animal, plant and microbial life.  The question is: "how does the dispersant effect the populations of naturally occuring oil-consuming bacteria?"

In a report published in 1999 by the Alaskan Department of Environmental Conservation entitled: "Biodegradation of Dispersed Oil Using COREXIT 9500" the dispersant was shown to inhibit the biodegradation of less soluble hydrocarons by marine bacteria, while accelerating the breakdown of the more soluble hydrocarbons.  The authors state: 

"Thus, while adding dispersant may increase microbial oil degradation activity as a whole, this increase may be restricted to only some components of the crude oil, resulting in selective enrichment of other components in the residual oil. This could result in either an increase or a decrease in the toxicity of the residual oil." (pg. 2)

"Radiorespirometry data suggest that addition of dispersant may inhibit mineralization of relatively insoluble substrates (e.g.,
hexadecane and phenanthrene; see Figures 1, 2 and 3), perhaps due to microbial preference for
the more bioavailable substrates." (pg. 24)

"We found that dispersant addition to oil increased total CO2 evolution from our defined consortium, but not as much as dispersant alone (Figure 5A), and hydrocarbon degraders were elevated much more than hexadecane
degraders or phenanthrene degraders (Figure 7)." (pg. 24) 

"Our data suggest that addition of dispersant to oil increases total carbon mineralized, and numbers of hydrocarbon degraders. This suggests that dispersant increases oil biodegradation, but total C [carbon] mineralization data and hydrocarbon degrader data are together insufficient to evaluate whether this observed increase in oil degradation is consistent across chemical classes of compounds contained in the oil. Our data indicate that dispersant may inhibit biodegradation of some components of the crude oil. At this point no data currently exist allowing evaluation of the effects of Corexit 9500 on biodegradation of the more acutely and chronically toxic components of crude oil. Following dispersant use, if the residual oil is selectively enriched in components of greater toxicity than those components biodegraded, the toxicity of the resulting oil residue (on an oil mass basis) may be increased." (pg. 25) 



 

    

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