Gluten exorphins

Gluten exorphins are a group of food peptides with opiate-like properties (known as opioids), formed during the break down of the gluten protein in modern wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). While likely contributing to wheat's additive and endocrine-disruptive properties, they represent only a fraction of the 23,000+ proteins cataloged in the T. aestivum proteome thus far.

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View the Evidence: Problem Substances

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Study Type : Human Study

Pubmed Data : FEBS Lett. 1997 Aug 4;412(3):475-9. PMID: 9276449
Study Type : Animal Study

Pubmed Data : Peptides. 2003 Feb;24(2):321-3. PMID: 12668219
Study Type : Animal Study

Pubmed Data : Life Sci. 1995;57(7):729-34. PMID: 7637543
Study Type : Animal Study

Pubmed Data : Nutr Neurosci. 2004 Feb;7(1):53-5. PMID: 15085559
Study Type : Animal Study

Pubmed Data : Pharmacol Res. 2003 Jan ;47(1):53-8. PMID: 12526862
Study Type : Animal Study

Pubmed Data : Life Sci. 2002 Oct 4;71(20):2383-90. PMID: 12231399
Study Type : Animal Study

Pubmed Data : Schizophr Bull. 1988 ;14(4):489-94. PMID: 2851166
Study Type : Commentary

Pubmed Data : FEBS Lett. 1993 Jan 18;316(1):17-9. PMID: 8422933
Study Type : In Vitro Study

Pubmed Data : FEBS Lett. 1992 Jan 13;296(1):107-11. PMID: 1309704
Study Type : In Vitro Study

Pubmed Data : Med Hypotheses. 1997 Sep;49(3):285-8. PMID: 9293475
Study Type : Commentary



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