1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Inhibits the Metastatic Capability of MCF10CA1a and MDA-MB-231 Cells in an In Vitro Model of Breast to Bone Metastasis.
Nutr Cancer. 2016 Aug 23:1-8. Epub 2016 Aug 23. PMID: 27552186
Breast cancer metastasis to the bone continues to be a major health problem, with approximately 80% of advanced breast cancer patients expected to develop bone metastasis. Although the problem of bone metastasis persists, current treatment options for metastatic cancer patients are limited. In this study, we investigated the preventive role of the active vitamin D metabolite, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), against the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells using a novel three-dimensional model (rMET) recapitulating multiple steps of the bone metastatic process. Treatment of MCF10CA1a and MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited metastasis in the rMET model by 70% (±5.7%)and 21% (±6%), respectively. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D treatment decreased invasiveness (20 ± 11% of vehicle) and decreased the capability of MCF10CA1a cells to survive in the reconstructed bone environment after successful invasion through the basement membrane (69 ± 5% of vehicle). An essentialstep in metastasis is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Treatment of MCF10CA1a cells with 1,25(OH)2D increased gene (2.04 ± 0.28-fold increase) and protein (1.87 ± 0.20-fold increase) expression of E-cadherin. Additionally, 1,25(OH)2D treatment decreased N-cadherin gene expression (42 ± 8%decrease), a marker for EMT. Collectively, the present study suggests that 1,25(OH)2D inhibits breast cancer cell metastatic capability as well as inhibits EMT, an essential step in the metastatic process.