Horizontal transmission of rhesus monkey rotavirus-based quadrivalent vaccine during a phase 3 clinical trial in Caracas, Venezuela.
J Infect Dis. 2003 Mar 1 ;187(5):791-800. Epub 2003 Feb 24. PMID: 12599053
During a phase 3 clinical trial of rhesus monkey rotavirus-based quadrivalent vaccine in Venezuela, 2207 infants received 3 oral doses of vaccine (4 x 105 plaque-forming units/dose) or placebo at ages approximately 2, 3, and 4 months; 219 (14%) of 1537 stools obtained during 1550 diarrheal episodes in postvaccination surveillance were rotavirus-positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. With the use of various VP7 and VP4 primers for genotyping purposes, 213 of 219 rotavirus-positive stools were analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-nine (14%) of 213 rotavirus-positive stools contained at least 2 distinct rotavirus strains: a low-titered vaccine strain(s) and a second strain that, when possible, was studied further and found to be a wild-type rotavirus strain. The titer of vaccine viruses in 19 stools that plaqued directly in cell cultures ranged from 10(1) to 10(3) plaque-forming units/0.5 mL of a 10% stool suspension. Reassortants of vaccine virus and wild-type human rotavirus were not detected.