2-butoxyethanol has tumorigenic properties. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Review of studies concerning the tumorigenicity of 2-butoxyethanol in B6C3F1 mice and its relevance for human risk assessment.
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2004 Sep-Oct;7(5):385-98. PMID: 15371241
Health and Environment Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York 14652-6272, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) has completed 2-yr inhalation exposures in rats and mice with 2-butoxyethanol (BE). This review concerns the most significant findings from those studies and describes recent research into the mechanistic aspects of BE-mediated tumorigenesis in the mouse and the relevance of such effects to humans. Two tumor types were increased in B6C3F1 mice leading to the classification of "some evidence" of carcinogenicity: liver hemangiosarcomas in male mice and forestomach tumors in female mice (primarily benign papillomas). The results of research collected to date indicate that the tumorigenesis noted for BE was produced by indirect mechanisms. In particular, the occurrence of liver hemangiosarcomas in male mice has been linked to oxidative damage subsequent to red blood cell hemolysis and iron deposition in this organ. Oral administration of BE in mice up to 600 mg/kg/d for up to 90 d produces a dose-related increase in iron (Perl's staining) in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes, increased DNA synthesis in endothelial cells, and enhanced oxidative damage. Further, iron alone, and not BE or BAA, is responsible for producing oxidative damage in cultured hepatocytes from rats or mice. Forestomach neoplasms in female mice were most likely a result of prolonged exposure-induced irritation with compensatory hyperplasia and subsequent tumor promotion. This mechanism is supported by studies indicating elevated levels of BE and BAA in the mouse forestomach tissues and stomach contents following multiple routes of exposure, forestomach epithelial cell cytotoxicity and cell proliferation following administration of BE and BAA, and the increased capacity of forestomach tissues from female mice to metabolize BE to the more irritating metabolite, BAA. The current article summarizes the results of a number of in vivo and in vitro studies designed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of tumorigenesis by BE in the mouse and discusses the relevance of these for human risk.