6-Gingerol attenuates microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and ischemic brain injuries. - GreenMedInfo Summary
6-Gingerol attenuates microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and ischemic brain injuries through Akt-mTOR-STAT3 signaling pathway.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2020 Jul 15:173294. Epub 2020 Jul 15. PMID: 32681941
Neuroinflammation is critical for the pathogenesis of ischemia brain damage. Over-activated microglia-mediated inflammation plays a very important role in ischemia cerebral injuries. 6-Gingerol, obtained from edible ginger (Zingiber Officinale) exhibits protective effects against inflammation. In this study, we found that 6-Gingerol could reduce the size of infarction (P = 0.0184) and improve neurological functions (P = 0.04) at the third day after ischemic brain injury in vitro. Since 6-Gingerol has the anti-inflammatory effects, we further investigated its impacts on neuroinflammation mediated by microglia both in vivo and in vitro. We found that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, P = 0.0213), Interleukin-6 (IL-6, P = 0.0316), and inducible NO synthase (iNOS, P = 0.0229) in the infarct penumbra were lower in 6-Gingerol treated groups. Furthermore, microglia induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, incremental intercellular nitric oxide (NO), as well as iNOS were blocked by the treatment of 6-Gingerol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated microglia. In terms of mechanism, 6-Gingerol potently suppressed phosphorylation of serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt) - mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) - signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in LPS-treated microglia. Taken together, the present study suggested that 6-Gingerol improved cerebral ischemia injury by suppressing microglia-mediated neuroinflammation by down-regulating Akt-mTOR-STAT3 pathway.