6-Gingerol inhibits Vibrio cholerae-induced proinflammatory cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells via modulation of NF-κB.
Pharm Biol. 2016 Mar 18:1-10. Epub 2016 Mar 18. PMID: 26987371
Context The effect of 6-gingerol (6G), the bioactive component of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), in the reduction of Vibrio cholerae (Vibrionaceae)-induced inflammation has not yet been reported. Materials and methods Cell viability assay was performed to determine the working concentration of 6G. Elisa and RT-PCR were performed with Int 407 cells treated with 50 μM 6G and 100 multiplicity of infection (MOI) V. cholerae for 0, 2, 3, 3.5, 6 and 8 h to determine the concentration of IL-8, IL-6, IL-1α and IL-1β in both protein and RNA levels. Furthermore, the effect of 50 μM 6G on upstream MAP-kinases and NF-κB signalling pathways was evaluated at 0, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min. Results The effective dose (ED50) value of 6G was found to be 50 μM as determined by cell viability assay. Pre-treatment with 50 μM 6G reduced V. cholerae infection-triggered levels of IL-8, IL-6, IL-1α and IL-1β by 3.2-fold in the protein level and two-fold inthe RNA level at 3.5 h. The levels of MAP-kinases signalling molecules like p38 and ERK1/2 were also reduced by two- and three-fold, respectively, after 30 min of treatment. Additionally, there was an increase in phosphorylated IκBα and down-regulation of p65 resulting in down-regulation of NF-κB pathway. Conclusion Our results showed that 6G could modulate the anti-inflammatory responses triggered by V. cholerae-induced infection in intestinal epithelial cells by modulating NF-κB pathway.