6-Shogaol, an active ingredient of ginger, inhibits osteoclastogenesis and alveolar bone resorption in ligature-induced periodontitis in mice.
J Periodontol. 2019 Nov 1. Epub 2019 Nov 1. PMID: 31675438
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the tissues surrounding teeth that causes destruction of connective tissues. During the progress of periodontitis, osteoclasts are solely accountable for the resorption of alveolar bones that leads to the loss of teeth if not properly treated. Thus, the development of effective anti-resorptive therapies will greatly benefit the treatment of periodontitis patients. In the present study, we suggest an inhibitory effect of 6-shogaol, an ingredient of ginger, on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Mouse bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) to investigate the effect of 6-shogaol on osteoclast differentiation and intracellular signaling pathways. 6-shogaol significantly reduced osteoclast differentiation, actin ring formation, and resorption. In the presence of 6-shogaol, osteoclast signaling including the RANKL-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, Caoscillation, generation of reactive oxygen species, and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 nuclear translocation was significantly inhibited in vitro. Furthermore, a ligature-induced periodontitis model in mice was used to determine the role of 6-shogaol in vivo. The administration of 6-shogaol prevented osteoclastogenesis and alveolar bone resorption induced by ligature. Furthermore, the ligature-induced number of macrophages and neutrophils as well as the expression of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α were considerably lower in the periodontal tissues following shogaol injection. These results confirm the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of 6-shogaol and suggest the possibility of application as an anti-resorptive strategy in periodontitis.