6-Shogaol from dried ginger inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of STAT3 and NF-κB signaling.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Jun ;7(6):627-38. Epub 2014 Apr 1. PMID: 24691500
Despite much recent progress, prostate cancer continues to represent a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in men. Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin neoplasm and second leading cause of death in men. 6-Shogaol (6-SHO), a potent bioactive compound in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. In the present study, the effect of 6-SHO on the growth of prostate cancer cells was investigated. 6-SHO effectively reduced survival and induced apoptosis of cultured human (LNCaP, DU145, and PC3) and mouse (HMVP2) prostate cancer cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that 6-SHO reduced constitutive and interleukin (IL)-6-induced STAT3 activation and inhibited both constitutive and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity in these cells. In addition, 6-SHO decreased the level of several STAT3 and NF-κB-regulated target genes at the protein level, including cyclin D1, survivin, and cMyc and modulated mRNA levels of chemokine, cytokine, cell cycle, and apoptosis regulatory genes (IL-7, CCL5,BAX, BCL2, p21, and p27). 6-SHO was more effective than two other compounds found in ginger, 6-gingerol, and 6-paradol at reducing survival of prostate cancer cells and reducing STAT3 and NF-κB signaling. 6-SHO also showed significant tumor growth inhibitory activity in an allograft model using HMVP2 cells. Overall, the current results suggest that 6-SHO may have potential as a chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent for prostate cancer and that further study of this compound is warranted.