Stage-dependent toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic on the embryonic development of a South American toad, Rhinella arenarum.
Environ Toxicol. 2011 Aug ;26(4):373-81. Epub 2010 Jan 28. PMID: 20112415
Programa de Seguridad Química, Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud (ICAS), Fundación PROSAMA, Paysandú 752, (1405) Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The acute and short term chronic toxicity of both the herbicide butyl ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and a commercial formulation (CF) were evaluated on Rhinella (= Bufo) arenarum embryos at different developmental stages. Adverse effects were analyzed by means of the isotoxicity curves for lethality, malformations, stage-dependent susceptibility, and ultrastructural features. For all experimental conditions, the CF was more toxic, up to 10 times, than the active ingredient, being the open mouth stage (S.21) the most susceptible to the herbicide. For continuous treatment conditions, the early embryonic development was the most susceptible to 2,4-D and the LC50s for 96 and 168 h were 9.06 and 7.76 mg L(-1) respectively. In addition, both the active ingredient and the CF were highly teratogenic, resulting in reduced body size, delayed development, microcephaly, agenesis of gills, and abnormal cellular proliferation processes as the main adverse effects. According to US EPA, 2,4-D in agricultural scenarios may be up to three times higher than the NOEC values for teratogenic effects reported in this study. Therefore, they might represent a risk for amphibians. This study also points out the relevance of reporting the susceptibility of embryos at different developmental stages to both the active ingredient and the CF of agrochemicals in order to protect nontarget organisms.