Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Activator Acetyl-11-keto-beta Boswellic Acid (AKBA)-Mediated Neuroprotection in Methyl Mercury-Induced Experimental Model of ALS.
Neurochem Res. 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1. PMID: 34075522
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that causes neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death. MeHg exposure also leads to oligodendrocyte destruction, glial cell overactivation, and demyelination of motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord. As a result, MeHg plays an important role in the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like neurocomplications. ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in which neuroinflammation is the leading cause of further CNS demyelination. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)/Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway was thought to be a potential target for neuroprotection in ALS. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is a multi-component pentacyclic triterpenoid mixture derived from Boswellia serrata with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The research aimed to investigate whether AKBA, as a Nrf2 / HO-1 activator, can provide protection against ALS. Thus, we explored the role of AKBA on the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in a MeHg-induced experimental ALS model. In this study, ALS was induced in Wistar rats by oralgavage of MeHg 5 mg/kg for 21 days. An open field test, force swim test, and grip strength were performed to observe experimental rats' motor coordination behaviors. In contrast, a morris water maze was performed for learning and memory. Administration of AKBA 50 mg/kg and AKBA 100 mg/kg continued from day 22 to 42. Neurochemical parameters were evaluated in the rat's brain homogenate. In the meantime, post-treatment with AKBA significantly improved behavioral, neurochemical, and gross pathological characteristics in the brain of rats by increasing the amount of Nrf2/HO-1 in brain tissue.Collectively, our findings indicated that AKBA could potentially avoid demyelination and encourage remyelination.