Administration of Chlorella sp. microalgae reduces endotoxemia, intestinal oxidative stress and bacterial translocation in experimental biliary obstruction.
Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;28(6):674-8. Epub 2009 Jul 8. PMID: 19589628
General Surgery, Gazi University, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
RATIONALE: Endotoxemia has long been documented in obstructive jaundice, and altered intestinal barrier function is considered to be one of the important mechanisms for this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different microalgae (Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp.) extracts in intestinal barrier function and oxidative stress in experimentally jaundiced rats. METHODS: A total of 60 male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 15 each: I, sham operated; II, bile duct ligation (BDL); III, BDL+Chlorella sp.; IV, BDL+Spirulina sp. Rats were fed rat chow or microalgae extracts supplemented enteral diet ten days after sham operation or BDL. Main outcome measures were endotoxin concentrations in plasma, evidence of bacterial translocation (BT) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and liver, oxidative stress, and histology. RESULTS: Compared to the group I, a significant increase in contamined MLNs, liver, and spleen samples and increased endotoxemia were noted in group II (P<0.01) but were significant reduced in group III (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in BT rate between the group II and group IV (P>0.05). Moreover, Chlorella sp. administration protected in jaundiced rats against oxidative stress, as demonstrated by reduction of intestinal lipid peroxidation, increase of the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), and decrease of the oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The intestinal mucosa in control rats was atrophic with significantly decreased villous density and total mucosal thickness. Chlorella sp. caused a significant reduction in villous atrophy compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Chlorella sp. microalgae supplemented enteral diet has significant protective effects on intestinal mucosa barrier in obstructive jaundice, and reduces intestinal translocation of bacteria and endotoxin.