Modulation of caspase-3 gene expression and protective effects of garlic and spirulina against CNS neurotoxicity induced by lead exposure in male rats.
Neurotoxicology. 2019 Jan 28 ;72:15-28. Epub 2019 Jan 28. PMID: 30703413
Mona K Galal
Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant with worldwide health problems. The present study was designed to investigate the neurotoxic effects of Pb in albino rats and to evaluate the ameliorative role of garlic as well as Spirulina maxima against such toxic effects. Forty adult male rats were used in this investigation (10 rats/group). Group I: served as control, Group II: rats received lead acetate (100 mg/kg), Group III: rats received both lead acetate (100 mg/kg) and garlic (600 mg/kg) and Group IV: rats received both lead acetate (100 mg/kg) and spirulina (500 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage for one month. Exposure to Pb acetate adversely affected the measured acetyl cholinesterase enzymeactivity, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation parameters as well as caspase-3 gene expression in brain tissue (cerebrum and cerebellum). Light and electron microscopical examination of the cerebrum and cerebellum showed various lesions after exposure to Pb which were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. On the other hand, administration of garlic and spirulina concomitantly with lead acetate ameliorated most of the undesirable effects. It could be concluded that, the adverse effects induced by lead acetate, were markedly ameliorated by co-treatment with S. maxima more than garlic.