Alleviation of fructose-induced Alzheimer's disease in rats by pioglitazone and decaffeinated green coffee bean extract.
J Food Biochem. 2021 May ;45(5):e13715. Epub 2021 Mar 29. PMID: 33782984
Hoda E Mohamed
Increased fructose consumption is among bad nutritional habits that contribute to increased incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. We proposed that coffee, the most popular beverage worldwide, may protect against the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the protective potential of decaffeinated green coffee bean extract (GCBE) and the possible potentiation of pioglitazone (PIO) effects by decaffeinated GCBE in fructose-induced AD in rats. Twenty-four rats [12-untreated and 12-pre-treated (for 4 weeks) with GCBE] consumed drinking water supplemented with 10% fructose for 18 weeks. Twelve of these rats (6-GCBE-untreated and 6-GCBE-pre-treated) were treated orally with PIO starting on the 13th week for 6 weeks. Prophylactic administration of GCBE attenuated oxidative damage (increased cortical reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity), while decreased malondialdehyde. It retarded the activation of acetylcholine esterase, increased acetylcholine level in the cortex of fructose-induced AD. It also impeded the upregulation of beta-secretase-1and the accumulation of Aβ plaques that were induced by fructose drinking. With PIO therapy, GCBE showed better effects alleviating oxidative stress and Aβ extracellular plaques formation, while improving cholinergic activity, learning, and memory ability. In conclusions, the consumption of GCBE may protect against the development of AD and delay the progression of AD when given with PIO. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Decaffeinated dietary supplement of green coffee bean extract attenuated the deleterious consequences of fructose-induced Alzheimer's disease in rats. It improved the antioxidant status and cortical cholinergic activity, while hindered the changes responsible for amyloid plaque formation. It also improved the impaired learning and memory. These results, if confirmed by clinical studies, may recommend the consumption of decaffeinated green coffee beans extract as dietary supplement or as a regular beverage toprotect against AD in individuals with family history or early signs of AD. With pioglitazone, such dietary supplement improved pioglitazone efficacy and delayed the progression of AD.