In Vitro and In Vivo Control of Secondary Bacterial Infection Caused by Leishmania major.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jul 13 ;14(7). Epub 2017 Jul 13. PMID: 28703780
Hany M Yehia
Bacterial infections of cutaneous leishmaniasis cause skin ulcers on mice, resulting in increased tissue deterioration, and these infections can be controlled with liquid allicin. To isolate and identify the incidences of real secondary bacterial infections in mice, we performed the current study by injecting mice (n = 50) with Leishmania major. L. major infections were initiated by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 mL Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640 media/mouse (10(7) promastigote/mL)). Scarring appeared 2-6 weeks after injection, and the bacteria were isolated from the skin ulcer tissues. Allicin (50µL/mL) and ciprofloxacin (5 μg; Cip 5) were used for controlling L. major and bacteria. One hundred samples from skin ulcers of mice were examined, and 200 bacterial colonies were isolated. Forty-eight different genera and species were obtained and identified by Gram staining and physiological andbiochemical characterization using identification kits. All samples were positive for secondary bacterial infections. Of the isolates, 79.16% were identified as Gram-negative bacteria, and 28.84% were identified as Gram-positive bacteria; only one yeast species was found. Interestingly, pure allicin liquid at a concentration 50 µL/mL exhibited antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to yeast, and was 71.43% effective. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of all genera and species were determined using 15 different antibiotics. Allicin (50 µL/mL) and Cip 5 were the most effective against L. major and 92.30% of isolated bacteria. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the most resistant bacterium to the tested antibiotics with a survival rate of 73.33%, and it exhibited resistance to allicin.