Anti-Leishmanial Activity (In Vitro and In Vivo) of Allicin and Allicin Cream Using Leishmania major (Sub-strain Zymowme LON4) and Balb/c Mice.
PLoS One. 2016 ;11(8):e0161296. Epub 2016 Aug 18. PMID: 27537199
Dina M Metwally
BACKGROUND: Leishmania is a unicellular protozoan parasite that produces several human diseases, ranging from localized self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral infections.
OBJECTIVE: The effect of allicin on the growth of Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes was evaluated under in vitro conditions. Moreover, the efficacy of a topical allicin cream was examined in BALB/c (Bagg albino, laboratory-bred strain of the House Mouse) mice with cutaneous leishmanial lesions compared to the currently used drug, sodiumstibogluconate (pentostam).
METHODS: Cytotoxiciy and promastigote proliferation were measured. Different concentrations (50, 100, 150, and 200μM) of liquid allicin were tested on L. major promastigotes twice: after 24 and 48 hours using an MTT colorimetric assay. In the in vivo condition, the efficacies of allicin cream and liquid allicin at two concentrations (0.15 μM/mouse and 0.30 μM/mouse) were evaluated. Serum factors of the control and treated groups were tested to evaluate the toxic effects of allicin on the liver and kidney.
RESULTS: Allicin at a concentration of 50μM inhibited the growth of Leishmania promastigotes. Topical application of allicin cream reduced lesion sizes in mice. No significant differences in biochemical analysis were observed between the control and treated groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Allicin has antileishmanial effects under in vitro and in vivo conditions and may be used in clinical applications.