Allyl isothiocyanate ameliorates insulin resistance through the regulation of mitochondrial function.
J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Oct ;25(10):1026-34. Epub 2014 Jun 5. PMID: 25034503
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. Allylisothiocyanate (AITC) is found in many cruciferous vegetables and has been reported to possess anticancer activity. However, the effect of AITC on insulin resistance and mitochondrial function has not yet been investigated. Here, we show that AITC increased glucose uptake in insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes and augmented glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in L6-GLUT4myc cells. AITC recovered the impaired insulin signaling evoked by free fatty acid exposure and increased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial DNA content. AITC also elevated the rate of oxygen consumption in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, mice that were fed a high-fat diet with AITC for 10 weeks had reduced diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis. AITC also inhibited the hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia induced by the consumption of a high-fat diet. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests indicated that AITC improved both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition, AITC inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and ameliorated high fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Collectively, these data suggest that the protective effect of AITC on insulin resistance is partly mediated through the modulation of mitochondrial dysfunction.