Alteration of adipose tissue immune cell milieu towards the suppression of inflammation in high fat diet fed mice by flaxseed oil supplementation.
PLoS One. 2019 ;14(10):e0223070. Epub 2019 Oct 17. PMID: 31622373
The present study evaluates the effect of flaxseed oil (FXO) supplementation on adipose tissue macrophages (ATM's), E and D series resolvin (Rv) levels and adipose tissue inflammation. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into five groups (n = 5): lean group (given standard chow diet), HFD group given high fat diet (approx. 18 weeks) till they developed insulin resistance and 4, 8 or 16 mg/kg group (HFD group later orally supplemented with 4, 8 or 16 mg/kg body weight flaxseed oil) for 4 weeks.The present study showed that FXO supplementation led to enhanced DHA, EPA, RvE1-E2, RvD2, RvD5- D6, IL-4, IL-10 and arginase 1 levels in ATMs together with altered immune cell infiltration and reduced NF-κB expression. The FXO supplementation suppresses immune cell infiltration into adipose tissue and alters adipose tissue macrophage phenotype towards the anti-inflammatory state via enhancement of E and D series resolvins, arginase 1 expression and anti-inflammatory cytokines level (IL-4 and IL-10.) leading to amelioration of insulin resistance in flaxseed oil supplemented HFD mice.