Aluminum nanoparticles are more neurotoxic than micrometer aluminum. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Size-Dependent Neurotoxicity of Aluminum Oxide Particles: a Comparison Between Nano- and Micrometer Size on the Basis of Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage.
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018 Jun ;183(2):261-269. Epub 2017 Aug 30. PMID: 28856594
Aluminum nanoparticles (AlNPs) are among the most abundantly produced nanosized particles in the market. There is limited information about the potential harmful effects of aluminum oxide due to its particle size on human health. Considering the toxic effects of Al on brain as its target tissue, in this study, the toxicity of nanoparticles, microparticles, and ionic forms of Al on rat brain and isolated mitochondria was evaluated. Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (six rats each), in which group I was the control, and the other groups were administered different doses of Al nanoparticles, Al microparticles (AlMP), and Al ionic forms (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) for 28 days. After 24 h, the animals were killed, brain tissue was separated, the mitochondrial fraction was isolated, and oxidative stress markers were measured. Also, mitochondrial function was assayed by MTT test. The results showed that all forms of Al particles induced ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and gait abnormalities in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Al particles decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. These data indicated that oxidative stress might contribute to the toxicity effectsof Al. Comparison of oxidative stress markers between all forms of Al revealed that the toxic effect of AlNP on brain tissue was substantially more than that caused by AlMP and bulk form. This study showed more neurotoxicity of AlNPs compared to other forms on brain oxidative damage that probably is due to more penetration into the brain.