Ameliorative Effect of Spinach on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced in Rats by a High-Fat Diet.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 3 ;20(7). Epub 2019 Apr 3. PMID: 30987167
Laura Inés Elvira-Torales
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of dietary carotenoids from spinach on the inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, liver lipid profile, and liver transcriptomic and metabolomics profiles in Sprague-Dawley rats with steatosis induced by a high-fat diet. Two concentrations of spinach powder (2.5 and 5%) were used in two types of diet: high-fat (H) and standard (N). Although rats fed diet H showed an accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, they did not show differences in the values of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and oxygen radical absorption (ORAC) in plasma or of isoprostanes in urine compared with animals fed diet N. The consumption of spinach and the accumulation of α and β carotenes and lutein in the liver was inversely correlated with serum total cholesterol and glucose and the content of hepatic cholesterol, increasing monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and reducing cholesterol in the livers of rats fed diet H and spinach. In addition, changes in the expression of genes related to the fatty liver condition occurred, and the expression of genes involvedin the metabolism of fatty acids and cholesterol increased, mainly through the overexpression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). Related to liver metabolites, animals fed with diet H showed hypoaminoacidemia, mainly for the glucogenic aminoacids. Although no changes were observed in inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, the consumption of spinach modulated the lipid metabolism in liver, which must be taken into consideration during the dietary treatment of steatosis.