Ameliorative effect of Spirulina platensis against lead nitrate-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in catfish Clarias gariepinus.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Jul ;26(20):20610-20618. Epub 2019 May 18. PMID: 31104244
The present study was designed to investigate the protective role of dietary supplementation of Spirulina platensis (SP) against cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of lead nitrate in Clarias gariepinus. Four groups of fishes were used: first group as control which fed on basal diet, second group fed on basal diet and exposed to (1 mg/L of lead nitrate), third group fed on diet containing 0.25% SP and exposed to (1 mg/L of lead nitrate), and fourth group fed on diet containing 0.5%SP and exposed to (1 mg/L of lead nitrate). Fish samples were taken at 2nd and 4th week of exposure. The hematological indices of lead nitrate-exposed group were decreased significantly compared to the control group at 2nd and 4th week of exposure. Lead nitrate caused a significant increase in the percentage of poikilocytosis, micronuclei, and apoptotic cells as well as comet tail length and olive tail moment compared with the control groupat 2nd and 4th week of exposure. The highest level of damage was found on 4th week of exposure with all parameters. Dietary inclusion of SP ameliorated these cytotoxic and genetic changes, as well as this amelioration was concentration and time dependent. Consequently, the present study proposed that the addition of SP to the fish diet can be used as a promising protective agent to oppose cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of lead nitrate in aquaculture. Graphical abstract.