American ginseng prevents and treats Ulcerative Colitis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
American ginseng suppresses inflammation and DNA damage associated with mouse colitis.
Carcinogenesis. 2008 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 18802031
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a dynamic, idiopathic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. American ginseng has anti-oxidant properties, and targets many of the players in inflammation. The aim of this study was to test whether American ginseng extract prevents and treats colitis. Colitis in mice was induced by the presence of 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water, or by 1% oxazolone rectally. American ginseng extract was mixed in the chow at levels consistent with that currently consumed by humans as a supplement (75 ppm, equivalent to 58 mg daily). To test prevention of colitis, American ginseng extract was given prior to colitis induction. To test treatment of colitis, American ginseng extract was given after the onset of colitis. In vitro studies were performed to examine mechanisms. Results indicate that American ginseng extract not only prevents, but it treats colitis. iNOS and Cox-2 (markers of inflammation) and p53 (induced by inflammatory stress) are also down-regulated by American ginseng. Mucosal and DNA damage associated with colitis is at least in part a result of an oxidative burst from overactive leukocytes. We therefore tested the hypothesis that American ginseng extract can inhibit leukocyte activation, and subsequent epithelial cell DNA damage in vitro and in vivo. Results are consistent with this hypothesis. The use of American ginseng extract represents a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of UC.