American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Beta Cell Death. - GreenMedInfo Summary
American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured beta Cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Sep;3(3):365-72. PMID: 16951721
American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic beta cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and beta cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting beta cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic beta cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism). To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent beta cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), (200 pg ml(-1), a cytokine to induce beta cell apoptosis) and water extracts of American ginseng (25 mug per 5 mul administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture) for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of beta cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.