Anthocyanins isolated from Hibiscus syriacus L. attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and endotoxic shock by inhibiting the TLR4/MD2-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.
Phytomedicine. 2020 May 17 ;76:153237. Epub 2020 May 17. PMID: 32540784
Wisurumuni Arachchilage Hasitha Maduranga Karunarathne
BACKGROUND: Hibiscus syriacus L. has been used as a medicinal plant in many Asian countries. However, anti-inflammatory activity of H. syriacus L. remains unknown.
PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigating the anti-inflammatory effect of anthocyanin fractions from the H. syriacus L. variety Pulsae (PS) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and endotoxic shock.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis were performed to determine cytotoxicity of PS. RT-PCR, western blotting, and ELISA were conducted to evaluate the expression of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines. Molecular docking study predicted the binding scores and sites of PS to TLR4/MD2 complex. Immunohistochemical assay was conducted to evaluate the binding capability of PS to TLR4/MD2 and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. A zebrafish endotoxic shock model was used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of PS in vivo.
RESULTS: PS suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin Esecretion concomitant with the downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Furthermore, PS inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Additionally, molecular docking data showed that PS mostly fit into the hydrophobic pocket of MD2 and bound to TLR4. In particular, apigenin-7-O-glucoside powerfully bound to MD2 and TLR4 via hydrogen bonding. Additionally, immunohistochemistry assay revealed that PS inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization or expression on the cell surface, which consequently decreased MyD88 recruitment and IRAK4 phosphorylation, resulting in the inhibition of NF-κB activity. PS also attenuated LPS-mediated mortality and abnormality in zebrafish larvae and diminished the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages at the inflammatory site accompanied by the low levels of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines.
CONCLUSION: PS might be a novel immunomodulator for the effective treatment of LPS-mediated inflammatory diseases.