Anti-apoptotic effects of carotenoids in neurodegeneration. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Anti-Apoptotic Effects of Carotenoids in Neurodegeneration.
Molecules. 2020 Jul 29 ;25(15). Epub 2020 Jul 29. PMID: 32751250
Apoptosis, programmed cell death type I, is a critical part of neurodegeneration in cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease. Apoptosis begins with activation of pro-death proteins Bax and Bak, release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases, loss of membrane integrity of intracellular organelles, and ultimately cell death. Approaches that block apoptotic pathways may prevent or delay neurodegenerative processes. Carotenoids are a group of pigments found in fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds that possess antioxidant properties. Over the last several decades, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated a protective role of carotenoids in neurodegenerative disease. In this review, we describe functions of commonly consumed carotenoids including lycopene,β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, and fucoxanthin and their roles in neurodegenerative disease models. We also discuss the underlying cellular mechanisms of carotenoid-mediated neuroprotection, including their antioxidant properties, role as signaling molecules, and as gene regulators that alleviateapoptosis-associated brain cell death.