Anti-inflammatory effect of sulforaphane on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and ob/ob mice. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Anti-inflammatory effect of sulforaphane on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and ob/ob mice.
J Vet Sci. 2020 Nov ;21(6):e91. PMID: 33263238
Sachithra S Ranaweera
BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate compound present in cruciferous vegetables. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of SFN have been reported, the precise mechanism related to the inflammatory genes is poorly understood.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between the anti-inflammatory effects of SFN and the differential gene expression pattern in SFN treated ob/ob mice.
METHODS: Nitric oxide (NO) level was measured using a Griess assay. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression levels were analyzed by Western blot analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RNA sequencing analysis was performed to evaluate the differential gene expression in the liver of ob/ob mice.
RESULTS: The SFN treatment significantly attenuated the iNOS and COX-2 expression levels and inhibited NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. RNA sequencing analysis showed that the expression levels of 28 genes related to inflammation were up-regulated (>2-fold), and six genes were down-regulated (<0.6-fold) in the control ob/ob mice compared to normal mice. In contrast, the gene expression levels were restored to the normal level by SFN. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network showed that chemokine ligand (Cxcl14, Ccl1, Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl17) and chemokine receptor (Ccr3, Cxcr1, Ccr10) were located in close proximity and formed a"functional cluster"in the middle of the network.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall results suggest that SFN has a potent anti-inflammatory effect by normalizing the expression levels of the genes related to inflammation that were perturbed in ob/ob mice.