Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Fermented Lotus Root and Linoleic Acid in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW 264.7 Cells.
Life (Basel). 2020 Nov 19 ;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 19. PMID: 33228085
Sung Min Kim
Inflammation is a protective response of the innate immune system. However, aberrant inflammatory responses lead to various diseases. Lotus root, the edible rhizome of, is a popular traditional herbal medicine in East Asia. In a previous study, we reported that fermented lotus root (FLR) alleviated ethanol/HCl-induced gastric ulcers in rats by modulating inflammation-related genes. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of FLR and its major constituent, linoleic acid (LA), are still largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of FLR and LA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. We found that FLR inhibited LPS-induced expression of inflammatory mediators through down-regulation of NF-κB activity. Similarly, LA also attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses and reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of proteins associated with NF-κB signaling, such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Overall, our results suggested that FLR and LA may effectively ameliorate inflammatory diseases.