Abstract Title:

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginsenoside-Rh2 Inhibits LPS-Induced Activation of Microglia and Overproduction of Inflammatory Mediators Via Modulation of TGF-β1/Smad Pathway.

Abstract Source:

Neurochem Res. 2016 May ;41(5):951-7. Epub 2016 Jan 6. PMID: 26738987

Abstract Author(s):

R Vinoth Kumar, Tae Woo Oh, Yong-Ki Park

Article Affiliation:

R Vinoth Kumar


Microglia activation plays an important role in neuroinflammation and contributes to several neurological disorders. Hence, inhibition of both microglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines may lead to the effective treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we found that GRh2 inhibited the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and prevented the LPS-induced neurotoxicity in microglia cells. GRh2 significantly decreased the generation of nitric oxide production, and tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in LPS-induced activated microglia cells. Furthermore, GRh2 (20 and 50 μM) significantly increased TGF-β1 expression and reduced the expression of Smad. These results suggest that GRh2 effectively inhibits microglia activation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via modulating the TGF-β1/Smad pathway.

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