Anti-inflammatory effects of Morus alba Linne bark on the activation of toll-like receptors and imiquimod-induced ear edema in mice.
BMC Complement Med Ther. 2021 Apr 9 ;21(1):115. Epub 2021 Apr 9. PMID: 33836731
BACKGROUND: Morus alba L. bark has been widely used in traditional medicine for treating several inflammatory diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coughing; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory effects are not well understood.
METHODS: We examined the effects of an extract of Morus alba L. bark (MabE) on Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand-induced activation of RAW264.7 macrophages using a luciferase reporter assay and immunoassays. For the in vivo experiment, we used an imiquimod-induced ear edema model to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of MabE.
RESULTS: MabE inhibited the TLR ligand-induced activation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells without affecting their viability. Consistent with the inhibition of NF-κB activation, MabE also inhibited the production of IL-6 and IL-1β from TLR ligand-treated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo MabE treatment inhibited the ear swelling of IMQ-treated mice, in addition to the mRNA expression of IL-17A, IL-1β and COX-2. The increases in splenic γδT cells in IMQ-treated mice and the production of IL-17A from splenocytes were significantly inhibited by MabE treatment.
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the anti-inflammatory effects of MabE on the activation of the macrophage cell line RAW246.7 by TLRs and IMQ-induced ear edema are through the inhibition of NF-κB activation and IL-17A-producing γδT cells, respectively.