Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Involved in Pomegranate-Mediated Prevention of Breast Cancer: the Role of NF-κB and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways.
Nutrients. 2017 Apr 28 ;9(5). Epub 2017 Apr 28. PMID: 28452959
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), a nutrient-rich unique fruit, has been used for centuries for the prevention and treatment of various inflammation-driven diseases. Based on our previous study, a characterized pomegranate emulsion (PE) exhibited a striking inhibition of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary tumorigenesis via antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing mechanisms. The objective of the present work is to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of PE during DMBA rat mammary carcinogenesis by evaluating the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Mammary tumor samples were harvested from our previous chemopreventive study in which PE (0.2-5.0 g/kg) was found to reduce mammary tumorigenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The expressions of COX-2, HSP90, NF-κB, inhibitory κBα (IκBα) and Nrf2 were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. PE decreased the expression of COX-2 and HSP90, prevented the degradation of IκBα, hindered the translocation of NF-κB from cytosol to nucleus and increased the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 during DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis. These findings, together with our previous results, indicate that PE-mediated prevention of DMBA-evoked mammary carcinogenesis may involve anti-inflammatory mechanisms through concurrent but differential regulation of two interrelated molecular pathways, namely NF-κBand Nrf2 signaling.