Anti-Proliferative Effects of Standardizedon Benign Prostatic Epithelial Cells via the PCNA/E2F1-Dependent Cell Cycle Pathway.
Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 15 ;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 15. PMID: 33334082
, widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, exhibits pharmacological effects against erectile dysfunction and pollakisuria, which are pathological symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although traditional usage and a study on BPH have been reported, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the exact molecular mechanism(s) underlying the anti-proliferative effects of standardizedon prostatic cells. We standardized30% ethanol extract (COFE) and demonstrated the therapeutic effects of COFE on human BPH epithelial cells and testosterone-induced BPH in rats. In vitro studies using BPH-1 cells demonstrated an upregulation of BPH-related and E2F Transcription Factor 1(E2F1)-dependent cell cycle markers, whereas treatment with COFE clearly inhibited the proliferation of BPH epithelial cells and reduced the overexpression of G1 and S checkpoint genes. Additionally, COFE administration alleviated the androgen-dependent prostatic enlargement in a testosterone-induced BPH animal model. COFE exerted these anti-BPH effects by the inhibition of anti-apoptotic markers, suppression of PCNA expression, and regulation of E2F1/pRB-dependent cell cycle markers in rats with BPH. These results suggest that COFE exerts anti-proliferative effect by regulating PCNA/E2F1-dependent cell cycle signaling pathway both in vivo and in vitro. These findings reveal the therapeutic potential of COFE, which could be used as a substitute for BPH treatment.