Antiadhesive phthalides from Apium graveolens fruits against uropathogenic E. coli. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Antiadhesive phthalides from Apium graveolens fruits against uropathogenic E. coli.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Jun 12 ;237:300-306. Epub 2019 Mar 20. PMID: 30904704
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fruits of Apium graveolens (celery) are used traditionally in Persian and European medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed at identifying potential antiadhesive compounds from celery extracts to provide strategies for improved standardization of the herbal material.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Decoction, hydroalcoholic and acetone extracts were prepared from celery fruits. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed by Fast Centrifugal Partition Chromatography and preparative HPLC, followed by LC-MS and NMR investigations for structure elucidation. The antiadhesive activity of extracts, fractions and purified compounds was assessed by flow cytometry, evaluating the adhesion of fluorescent-labelled uropathogenic bacteria (UPEC NU14) to T24 bladder cells; mannose served as positive control. Influence of the extract on gene expression of selected adhesins and fitness genes was monitored by qPCR.
RESULTS: Concentration-dependent antiadhesive activity was found for the hydroalcoholic and even more for the acetone extract AE (IC85 μg/mL) from celery fruits. Bioassay-guided fractionation revealed the presence of the phthalides senkyunolide (1, inactive) and sedanenolide (2, IC790 μM). 2 is assessed as the main antiadhesive compound, which accounts for 4.0% in the water extract, for 18% in the hydroethanolic extract and for 71% in AE. Additionally a similar phthalide, Z-ligustilide (5), was shown to exert an ICof 611 μM. Furthermore, AE caused a significant upregulation of fimH and sfaG in free floating, non-attached UPEC and significantly down-regulated these genes in adherent bacteria.
CONCLUSIONS: Phthalides were identified as the main active compounds in polar and semi-polar extracts, which exert strong antiadhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli. The current findings support the traditional use in phytotherapy for urinary tract infections and provide a base for standardization of the herbal material.