Evaluation of Antiarthritic Activity of Butanol Fraction of Punica granatum Linn. Rind Extract Against Freund's Complete Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2018 ;37(1):53-62. PMID: 29773000
Rupesh Kumar Gautam
Available conventional drugs produce several side effects; thus, a potent herbal drug is urgently required for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. The present investigation was performed to evaluate the antiarthritic activity of butanol fraction of Punica granatum Linn. rind methanolic extract (PGBF) against Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis in rats. An acute toxicity study of butanol fraction was conducted, accompanied by a study of its antiarthritic activity. Chromatography (thin layer chromatography and high-performance thin layer chromatography) analyses were also conducted. Phytochemical screening of the fraction was performed to confirm the presence of phytoconstituents. For antiarthritic activity, the active butanol fraction was administered at doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight. The antiarthritic activity was evaluated by using biophysical paramaters (arthritic score, body weight, paw volume and joint diameter) and hematological parameters [red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)]. Dexamethasone (5 mg/kg) was selected as the standard. Phytochemical screening of butanol fraction showed the presence of steroids, tannins, flavonoids, irioid glycosides, and phenolic compounds. Acute toxicity studies suggested that butanolic fraction was safe up to a dose of 500 mg/kg. The data regarding biophysical and hematological parameters clearly indicated that the butanol fraction at a 75 mg/kg dose showed a more significant effect (**P<0.01 and ***P<0.001) than the 50 mg/kg dose. The antiarthritic potential of a butanol fraction of Punica granatum Linn. rind extract may be due to the presence of active phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, irioid glycosides, and phenolic compounds. Future studies will provide a new approach in relation to the antiarthritic activity of Punica granatum Linn., and the isolation of its active compound may eventually lead to the development of a new category of the antiarthritic agent.