Antidepressant activity ofω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ovariectomized rats: role of neuroinflammation and microglial polarization.
Lipids Health Dis. 2020 Jan 8 ;19(1):4. Epub 2020 Jan 8. PMID: 31915015
BACKGROUND: Menopause predisposes individuals to affective disorders, such as depression, which is tightly related to neuroinflammation. While the neuroinflammatory condition has been demonstrated in ovariectomized (OVX) rodents, there is limited evidence concerning microglial polarization, a key process in brain immune activation, in menopause-related brain.
METHODS: Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the polarized microglia in long-term OVX rats and we further explored whether supplementation ofω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the pleiotropic bioactive nutrient, is effective in the neurobehavioral changes caused by OVX.
RESULTS: Our data showed that OVX-induced anxiety and depression-like behaviors in rats, accompanied with increased neural apoptosis and microglial activation in the hippocampus. Additionally, OVX enhanced proinflammatory cytokines expression and suppressed the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Correspondingly, OVX reinforced NFκB signaling and shifted the microglia from immunoregulatory M2 phenotype to proinflammatory M1 phenotype. Meanwhile, daily supplementation with PUFA suppressed microglial M1 polarization and potentiated M2 polarization in OVX rats. In parallel, PUFA also exerted antidepressant and neuroprotectiveactivities, accompanied with neuroimmune-modulating actions.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, the present study firstly demonstrated the disturbed microglial polarization in the OVX brain and provide novel evidence showing the association between the antidepressant actions of PUFA and the restraint neuroinflammatory progression.