Association between depressive symptoms, use of antidepressant medication and the metabolic syndrome: the Maine-Syracuse Study.
BMC Public Health. 2016 ;16(1):502. Epub 2016 Jun 10. PMID: 27287001
Georgina E Crichton
BACKGROUND: Both depression and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are two major public health issues. The aim of this study was to examine associations between depressive symptoms, the use of antidepressant medications, and the prevalence of MetS.
METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 970 participants from the Maine-Syracuse Study. Depressive symptoms were measured using two self-reported depression scales, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Zung self-rating depression scale. Antidepressant medication use was also self-reported. MetS was defined according to the recent harmonized criteria.
RESULTS: The risk of MetS were approximately 79 and 86 % higher for those in the highest quartile for the CESD and the Zung (CES-D: OR = 1.79, p = 0.003; Zung: OR = 1.71, p = 0.006), compared to those in the lowest quartile. With adjustment for socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors and C-reactive protein (CRP), risk was attenuated, but remained statistically significant for the CES-D. In those who reported using antidepressant medication, the odds of having MetS were over 2-fold higher (OR = 2.22, p < 0.001, fully adjusted model), compared to those who did not use antidepressants. Both measures of depressed mood were also associated with low high density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Antidepressant use was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose concentrations, hypertension, and low HDL-cholesterol.
CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms and the use of antidepressant medications are associated with the prevalence of MetS, and with some of the individual components of the syndrome.