Antifungal activity of punicalagin-nystatin combinations against Candida albicans. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Antifungal activity of Punicalagin-nystatin combinations against Candida albicans.
Oral Dis. 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24. PMID: 32583467
Rafaela Alves da Silva
OBJECTIVES: Oral candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection of oral mucosa and results from an overgrowth of Candida, especially Candida albicans. The potential anti-C. albicans and cytotoxicity of punicalagin (PCG), isolated from Punica granatum, alone or with nystatin (NYS) were evaluated.
METHODS: Activity of compounds alone or in combinations was determined against two C. albicans strains (ATCC 90028 and SC5314). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)-50 and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were assessed by XTT assay and CFU counts, respectively. For combinations, determination of fractional inhibitory concentration index was performed. Ergosterol pathway was investigated as a possible PCG antifungal mechanism. Cytotoxicity assays were undertaken on human primary oral keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts incubated with antifungal concentrations of PCG and/or NYS for 24 hr.
RESULTS: Combination of NYS and PCG increased antifungal efficacy, compared with compounds tested alone. Combinations 4 (PCG-6.25 μg/ml; NYS-3.9 μg/ml) and 5 (PCG-12.5 μg/ml; NYS-1.95 μg/ml) were more effective since they reduced the MIC-50 of PCG (50 μg/ml) by 8 and 4 times, respectively, increased the candidal inhibition and nullified the PCG cytotoxicity for keratinocytes. PCG antifungal mechanism did not involve ergosterol biosynthesis pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The favorable outcomes for combination of PCG and NYS encourage further testing this therapeutic strategy against C. albicans.